中考冲刺七:写作技巧(基础知识)

发布时间:2024-05-30 02:05:07浏览次数:7
中考冲刺七:写作技巧【真题再现】书面表达【2012 岳阳】今年四月份,岳阳市启动了“文明餐桌行动”,号召全体市民“文明用餐,节俭惜福”。请结合图片,联系实际,适当发挥,以“Save(节约) Food and Eat Healthily”为题,写一篇 80-100 词的英语短文。文章开头已给出,不计入总词数。 waste too much eat up all the food eat junk food eat a balanced diet Save Food And Eat Healthily Yueyang government has called on the citizens to save food and eat healthily so that we can enjoy our happy life. We middle school students should do something for it. To save food, we _________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________【2012 北京】根据中文和英文提示词语,写出意思连贯、符合逻辑、不少于 60 词的短文,所给英文提示词语仅供选用,请不要写出你的真实校名和姓名。生活中每个人都有过与他人分享的体验,如分享一本有趣的书、一段难忘的经历、一个闪光的想法……现在,某英文报纸就分享(Sharing)话题征文,请你投稿。描述一次你与他人分享的经历,并谈谈你的感受。提示词语:share…with…; experience; interest; learn; change; encourage; enjoy; happiness; confident___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________【答案与解析】【2012 岳阳】One possible version: Save Food And Eat HealthilyYue yang government has called on the citizens to save food and eat healthily so thatwe can enjoy our happy life. We middle school students should do something for it.To save food, we shouldn’t waste any of our food. We should eat up all the food. We shouldn’t order the food more than we can eat while dining out, because many people in the world don’t have enough to eat. To eat healthily, we shouldn’t eat junk food but healthy food. It’s good for our health to eat a balanced diet. We’d better not eat in small restaurants. The food and the oil they use are not clean or healthy enough. We’d better eat at school or at home if we have time.【2012 北京】One possible version: I had an experience of sharing. When my family moved, I had to go to a new school and study in a new class. The first test made me so nervous that I failed. I got worried and felt helpless until one of my new classmates came up to me and asked softly if I was OK. After I told him about my problem, he gave me some advice. From then on, we got to know each other and shared our ideas, problems, and happiness. We became good friends. Sharing with friends helped me bring back my confidence and fit in with others. 【用法讲解】考试要求:书面表达是考查学生应用书面文字交流信息的能力。书面表达是学生综合运用英语能力的重要考查方式。中考要求是:1. 学生能够根据提示和要求搜集素材;2. 学生能够独立书写短文和短信,并能自我修改;3. 学生能够运用一些连词或者关联连词表示顺序和逻辑关系,使短文流畅;4. 学生能够根据图示和表格写出简单的说明文。纵观全国各地的中考英语试卷,书面表达一般以中文提示、英文提示为主要要求的写作。一般是记叙文比较多,也有说明文和应用文。应用文一般是写书信、通知、请假条、发言稿、寻物启事等。有的要求学生简单写自己对某一事物或者活动的感受和评价。书面表达题材比较贴近学生的生活,是学生关心的社会热点问题。涉及学生的学校生活、家庭生活、社会公益事业(希望工程、志愿者和环境保护)、文化交流活动。这些题材学生比较熟悉,保证了学生有话可写。1. 中考书面表达的题型中考英语中的书面表达题,主要有“补全对话”、“看图填词”、“看图写话”、“看图作答”、“看图完成短文”、“看图完成句子”和“根据提示的内容,完成某项写作”等形式。这类题型的考试目的在于:通过书面形式测试考生口头会话和作简单书面表达的能力。一般说来,测试的主要内容都是以日常生活为背景,进行简单的会话或写作。例如:问候、问路、看病、打电话、购物、自我介绍、便条、通知、短信等功能意念项目和简单的应用文。一个题目写 10个左右的句子,字数为 60-100 个左右。书面表达一般分为:记叙文、说明文和应用文。1)记叙文 是以写人、叙事为主要内容的一种文体,也是英语书面表达中最普遍、最基本的文体。记叙文一般是记叙某人或者某事,多用一般过去时来记叙。记叙文要有明确的主题和中心思想,记叙文的线索要清晰。记叙文一般包括基本要素即:who(何人),what(何事),when (何时),where (何地),why (何因),how(怎么样)。写记叙文要掌握记叙事情或者人物的人称代词和动词的时态。一般记叙文用第一人称或者第三人称代词来写较好。例如:Planting TreesIt was fine on March 12, 2012. I got up early that day. All the students in our schoolwent to the hill near our school and planted trees.We arrived there at eight o’clock. The teacher asked each of us to plant at least sixtrees. Then we started digging, planting and watering. We all worked so hard that we could finish our tasks ahead of the time. Among us, Wang Lin, our monitor set a good example for us. Though he was ill, he worked harder. When he finished his task, he went on to help others without having a rest. He was wet all over after work. “I must learn from him,” I said to myself. Looking at the lines of the young trees, we smiled happily,forgetting our tiredness. 2)说明文 是以说明为主要表达方式,用简洁明了的文字介绍事物,说明道理的文章。主要是对事物的类别、性质、特征、状态、功能等进行说明和解释。也可以对事物的发生、发展和消亡的过程进行解说的文章,都是说明文。说明文写作的目的是让读者知道、了解客观世界、掌握问题的解决办法。说明文的特点是:具有知识性、科学性、应用性、解说性、条理性。 写说明文要抓住事物的特点即本质特征,让读者获得全面深刻的认识。要安排好说明的顺序, 是时间顺序还是空间顺序。要讲究说明的方法,一般写说明文用下定义、举例子、作比较、列数字、画图表和打比喻。要注意说明文的语言要准确,简洁、通俗生动。例如:My Foreign Friend —TomTom Brown is an American boy. He is 17 years old. He lives at 69 Park Road, New York with his parents. Tom is a student in No. 4 High School. On weekdays, he studies very hard. Art and music are his favorite subjects. In his spare time, he likes doing sports. He usually goes swimming three times a week. After supper, he usually walks. On Saturdays, he usually has parties, goes shopping and takes photos. He likes making friends and they always enjoy themselves. After a week’s hard work, he likes staying at home and watching TV on Sundays. Every year, he goes traveling to many countries.3)应用文应用文主要包括:书信、日记、发言稿、电话记录、通知和贺卡。① 书信 书信的格式:第一种是写信人的地址和日期在右上角,收信人的地址、姓名在左上角,比收信人的地址低一行,书信的正文每一段起行都留 5 个字母的空间。第二种是每一段的起行都不留空间,段与段之间空一行。写地址时,小的地址在前面,大的地址在后面。第一行写门牌号,街道名称,乡镇名称。第二行写县市区省的名称。第三行写国家的名称。书信的结构:开场白和结束语书信的称呼一般用 Dear ____,例如:Dear friend,Dear Dad 等。开场白一般用:  Thank you for ____.  It’s a pleasure for me to ______.   Glad to get your letter.   How are things getting on? 结束语一般用:  Best wishes!   Wish you good luck!   Write to me soon.   Hope to hear from you.   Give my best wishes to _____. 书信最后的签名是 Yours, _____. / Your loving.等。② 发言稿:  发言稿有三个部分构成:开场白、正文和结束语(表示感谢、祝愿、希望)  例如:Good morning everyone!  We are studying in this school. It’s our duty to keep it clean and tidy. It’s not good to spit in public places, such as in the library or in the classroom. We should neither draw pictures on the walls nor throw any litter on the ground. I think we must make it a rule to do some cleaning every day. If everyone tries his best to do something useful for our school, I am sure our school will be more beautiful. That’s all. Thank you!③日记:  日记的写作非常简单,第一行开头顶格写月、日、星期,第一行的末尾写天气情况。第二行是日记的正文,格式和书信一样。日记一般是记叙过去的事情,所以用一般过去时比较多。 ④ 通知:  通知要简洁明了,写清楚时间、地点、事件、人物和发通知的单位和个人姓名。例如:                    NoticeAll the Grade One students,  There will be a meeting in the dining-hall about how to improve your memory at 3:30 this afternoon. Please get ready for it, and be there on time.                                  Grade One OfficeJune 4, 2008⑤请假条:  内容简洁,说明请假的原因和时间就可以了。最后有请假人的姓名。例如:Dear Mr. Wang,  My parents have gone to Beijing, and I have to stay at home to look after my two-year-old sister. So I can’t go to school today. Please give me a two-day off.                                   Yours,                                    Li Lei⑥贺卡:  贺卡是在欢庆、喜悦的时候表达对自己亲友、老师等人的祝贺所使用的一种友好形式。一般有节日、纪念日贺卡、生日贺卡、成功祝贺贺卡等。贺卡的语言要求简洁、明快,表示祝愿和祝贺的主题。例如:  To our Dear teacher,  Happy Teachers’ Day!  Thank you for teaching us so well.  Good luck! Best wishes!  From your students.4)按出题的方式分一般有看图作文和有提示作文等。  ① 看图作文  写好这种文体的关键是正确读图。首先,要看懂图片本身所表示的具体内容,包括人物、时间、地点、事件、过程变化和结果。读图时,图片中出现的每一个细节,如数字、符号、字母等都不能轻易放过,因为里面可能有重要信息;其次,要认真分析命题人的意图及思想倾向,即命题人要用这些图片说明什么道理,表面什么态度,要达到什么目的,及要表达什么主题。例如:  观察下图。根据图示和参考词语,适当拓展想象空间,以 Why are trees important? 为标题,用英语写一篇不少于 80 个词的短语。注意: (1) 短文应切中题意,条理清楚,词句通顺,书 写清晰、规范。 (2) 短文第一句话已给出。参考词语:take in carbon dioxide 吸收二氧化碳;oxygen 氧气;insect 昆虫;stop water and soil from going away 防止水土流失;desert 沙漠。 【解析】1. 认真审题:本题已给出题目,我们可以根据题目,用提示词和图示为线索展开书写。2. 确定要素:①树能吸收二氧化碳,释放氧气 ②树能给鸟类提供家园③树能为某些小动物提供食物 ④树能阻止水土流失⑤树能防止土壤沙漠化 ⑥植树造林,美化家园3.看下面的范文:One possible version: Why are trees important? Trees are very important to us. Do you know why? Let me tell you. Trees take in carbon dioxide from the air and make oxygen. That’s important. People and animals need oxygen to live. Many small animals and insects live in the trees.Some of them also get food from trees. Trees can also stop water and soil from going away. If we have a lot of trees, they can stop land from being desert. I think this is very important. You know, trees are green. They can make our country even more beautiful. Trees are our good friends. We should plant more trees and take good care of them.②有提示作文  中英文提示作文是最近几年中考常考的题型,其特征是:中文提供情景内容,英语提供关键词。近年来也有用表格、图表、图示、照片等来提供提示的。实际上,看图作文就是用图画提示书面表达的内容。  写有提示作文要注意两个方面:一是内容;二是表达。内容要包括所有要点,如果遗漏要点,就会丢分。知道了要写什么,最难的就是表达了。表达时要求用词准确、句子通顺、行文连贯,句型、短语使用准确,如果能正确运用较复杂的句子,内容做适当的发挥,就更能够提高作文的质量了。  有提示作文是我们最常见的作文,如下提示作文的范例。请以“I want to be a/an.…”为题写一篇短文,词数 60~80 词。内容必须包括提示中的三项要求,请不要使用真实姓名及所在学校名称。提示:① What do you want to be?② Why do you want to be a/an…?③ How can you make it come true?【解析】认真读懂题意,明白本题写作必须要包括提示所给要求。根据提示确定题目,展开想象,根据层层递进的提示线索 what, why 及 how 来合理组织语言,内容要符合逻辑,用词准确、句子通顺、行文连贯。参考范文如下:One possible version: I want to be an inventor Many people want to make their new ideas and wishes come true. They want to inventsome new things for the world. I am one of them. I just want to be an inventor. Inventions can change the world. They can bring fun and happiness to our life. Andour life will become better and better. Now I’m still a middle school student. I must try my best to work hard at my lessons and learn what my teachers teach us. I will use myinventions to make contributions to our country. 2. 做书面表达题的步骤:1)正确审题,确定内容要点首先要细读每一项提示,把握短文的写作要点和写作体裁,看一看是要求写记叙文、说明文还是应用文,这是必须把握的要点,否则就是我们平时所说的跑题了。另外要根据所给的提示列出写作要点,根据中文内容和情景扩展思路,扩充句子的内容。然后用所给的英语关键词和短语,写出自己能够驾驭的句子(自己能够正确应用的句子),连词成句、组句成段、段落成文。2) 草拟提纲在认真审题和确定写作要点的基础上,可以对主题要点进行适当地引申和扩展,可以提出各种联想和论点,并从所给提示的内容要点出发,围绕着关键的信息开拓思路,发挥联想,记录自己想象到的内容和要点。然后草拟提纲,列出各个要点,针对要点进行扩充,务必要充分运用自己熟悉的短语和句子来写。3) 写出每一段的主题句在列好提纲的基础上,把列出的短语和简单的句子扩充为更为完整的概括性句子就成了这一个段落的主题句。要保证该句子语法结构完整,内容高度概括、用词简洁明了。主题句一般放在段落的开头。4)参照提纲,紧扣主题句,完成段落围绕着各段的主题句,进行 2-3 个句子的阐述,可以举例或者进一步推理说明,来支持主题句,表达一个完整的意思。各个段落之间要层次分明,避免重复和交叉。句子和句子之间、段落和段落之间要有自然的过渡和衔接。切忌把中文的提示内容和情景逐词逐句去翻译。要用自己熟悉的词汇和句型来表达思想内容,平时多训练用不同的句型和句子结构来表达同一个内容。还要注意简单句和复合句的交替使用,使文章句型多样化和语言知识丰富化,这样才能获得高分。5)认真检查修改草稿按照上面的步骤完成草稿以后,不要急着往试卷上誊写。要仔细检查和修改,主要检查:主题是否准确、信息要点是否齐全、句子连接是否流畅、句子的时态是否正确、语态是否正确、句子的主语和谓语是否一致、名词的单复数是否正确、单词拼写是否有错误、短语的固定搭配是否正确、标点符号是否正确、字数是否够等。然后认认真真誊写在试卷上面。3. 书面表达解题技巧:1)要注意看清题目的要求与提供的情景,需用哪些习惯用语,哪种时态,根据词数限制,应选用哪一种表达方式为最佳。2)表达要正确,要注意英美人的习惯用语,切忌随心所欲,用中文去对照英文进行翻译。尤其是写对话时,更要注意在不同情境下的客套话或交际用语等。3)遇到自己不会的词语和句子,先想一想是否可以用其它的词语或句子来代替,换一种说法来写,可能会写得更好。不写没有把握的句子,切忌为使文章生动,在句中随意增加自己无把握的词,导致中文式英语而影响考试成绩。4)在写应用文类命题作文或对话时,应注意应用文的格式、人称、动词的时态等用法;写短文或对话时,要注意切题,有的同学,尤其是英语基础较好的同学,洋洋洒洒写了很多,可能已经离开主题了,也可能词数过多了,这些都有可能导致失分。写得多出错的可能也大,所以要注意要求的词数,不要超出词数要求过多。实例分析:根据中文提示和英文书信内容,写一封意思连贯、符合逻辑、不少于 60 词的回信,信的开头和结尾已给出,其字数不计入所完成的回信内。 假设你是《21 世纪中学生英语报》 “heart to heart”专栏的编辑。下面是你收到的一位中学生的来信。请你根据他来信的内容写一封回信。针对他的问题,谈谈你的看法,同时提出一些帮助他解决问题的建议。Dear editor, Normally I am a happy student. I do well in my studies and have a lot of friends. However, I just feel depressed (沮丧的) recently because I have put on much weight and become too heavy. I think it’s because I eat a lot when I stay up late doing my homework. And when I don’t have much work to do, I usually sit in front of TV with chocolates and potato chips. People say I need exercise and running is good for me. But Ireally don’t like running alone. It’s boring. What should I do? I really want to lose weight. Please help!                               Yours,   Xiao wei参考范文:One possible version:Dear Xiao Wei, First of all, I think being a little bit fat is nothing terrible because there are dozens of solutions. So stop being depressed. Here are my suggestions. Firstly, never stay up late. You may worry about how you can finish your work, but in fact if you sleep early, you will be so energetic the next day that you don’t need to stay up. Secondly, stay away from chocolates and chips. They do nothing good though they taste good. Finally, it will be perfect if you join the school sports team. Don’t be shy to sign in.Though you will get some unfriendly glimpses, what you get, a slim and healthy body, is much greater than what you lose.That’s all. Good luck. Yours, Editor点评: 以上这篇习作语言简洁,文子流畅, 是比较难得的. 主要的优点有: 所提的建议简明扼要, 而且每一条建议后都有适当的阐释, 使得建议本身比较丰满, 比较有说服力.
文档格式: docx,价格: 5下载文档
返回顶部