中考冲刺四:阅读理解技巧(基础讲解)

发布时间:2024-06-18 00:06:10浏览次数:22
中考冲刺四:阅读理解技巧【真题再现】【2012 江苏连云港市】A Simple Scientific ExperimentA Simple Scientific Experiment 1. In the first part of the experiment the cotton wool is most probably used to _________.A. keep the air dryB. keep the tube wetC. make the nails rustD. keep the tube clean2. What are necessary steps to make sure the water in the tube is air free?① Leave half a tube of water in it② Boil the water for some time③ Put some clean iron nails in the tube④ Add some oil to the waterA. ①②    B. ①③    C. ②③    D. ②④3. We can conclude from the experiment that only ____________ makes iron rusty.A. dry air    B. cotton wool    C. ordinary water    D. air-free water【2012 湖北黄冈市】 Wang Bing’s father began smoking when he was a freshman (大学一年级学生)in college. His friend passed him his first cigarette. He has now been smoking for more than 30 years.It’s a classic example of how young people are introduced to cigarettes, except that nowadays smokers develop their habit at an even younger age.It has become a major concern(担忧) in China that many teenagers begin to smoke. A surveyshowed that 22.5% of the middle school students questioned had tried smoking and 15.8% of them smoked regularly.For many teenagers, smoking is a symbol of being an adult, independence, maturity(成熟) and attractiveness because the images who they love best often smoke on screen.The social environment also plays an important role in attracting teenagers to smoking. They are used to seeing their elders, especially male family members, smoking at home. Many of them imitate adult behavior and become new smokers.To increase the price of cigarettes is an effective way to reduce the number of young smokers, as teenagers have limited money to spend on them.Another way is to educate the teenagers to voluntarily refuse cigarettes. A survey shows that 92.5% of the students know smoking will be bad for their health. If we persuade them in a proper way, most of them may give up smoking.All in all, the society, the government, the school and the family should join together to take the responsibility for an anti-smoking (禁烟) campaign aimed at teenagers, not just to put empty slogans and warnings on cigarette packs.1. The writer uses the first paragraph to ______.A. tell the readers a story of a smokerB. introduce the topic of the passageC. introduce the college life of Wang Bing’s father.2. What’s the main idea of this passage?A. The teenagers think smoking is a symbol of being an adult and independence.B. The social environment encourages the teenagers to smoke.C. The teenagers should be educated to refuse to smoke.D. The teenage smoking has become a serious problem in China. 3. What does the word “imitate” in Paragraph 5 mean in Chinese?A. 指责 B. 忍受 C. 模仿 D. 支持4. From the underlined part of the last sentence of this passage, we can infer(推断) thatthe writer thinks putting slogans and warnings on cigarette packs is ______to solve the problem.A. not enough B. of no use C. of great help D. of great importance.【答案与解析】【2012 江苏连云港市】1.A。 在 Iron in dry air 的 Method 中提到在试管中放入棉花,结合 dry air 可知答案为 A。2. D。通读 Iron in air-free water 中的描述可知答案为 D。3. C。通读三个 Conclusion 可知答案为 C。【2012 湖北黄冈市】 1.B。细节理解题。本文主要讲述学生抽烟的人数不断上升。通过第一段的例子引出这一主题。故选B。2.D。主旨大意题。根据第三段“It has become a major concern in China that many teenagers begin to smoke.”可知,本文主要强调的是青少年抽烟已经成为一个社会的问题了。故选 D。3.C。词义猜测题。根据语境可知,许多孩子都是模仿大人学会抽烟的。imitate 具有“模仿”的意思。故选 C。4.A。细节理解题。根据“not just to”可知,仅仅是打着戒烟的口号和警告是远远不够的,还需要更多强有力的方式去杜绝青少年吸烟。not enough 表示“不仅仅”。故选 A。考试要求1. 考查学生理解短文的主旨和主题要义能力;2. 理解短文具体信息(包括图文转换的信息)的能力;3. 根据短文上下情景猜测单词的能力;4. 根据短文的内容判断和推理能力;5. 理解作者的意图和态度的能力。纵观全国各地中考试卷,中考阅读理解考试题的比例在整个试卷占了很大的比例,阅读理解的成绩直接决定学生能否在中考中取得优秀成绩。中考阅读短文的题材除了选一些通俗易懂的文学作品和故事体裁的小短文,还经常选用一些富有时代鲜明特征、实用性比较强的语言材料。例如:报刊杂志的文章、使用说明书、招贴告示、广告和各种各类图表。选择这些材料不仅能够提高测试的真实性,还能展示目标语言在现实生活中的真实运用来激发学生学习英语的兴趣。1. 阅读理解的题型:近几年中考试卷的阅读理解测试题主要有选择型测试题、判断正误型测试题和任务型测试题三种形式。根据阅读理解的题干部分可以分为以下几种测试题型:(1)理解主旨大意题:考查学生对于文章的中心思想或全文梗概的领会、理解和概括能力。我们可以通过“略读-skimming”来获取文章或者段落的主题和主旨大意。在略读时要注意寻找主题句(topic sentence)以帮助理解文章的主题和了解文章的大意。有一些同学可能认为没有仔细阅读文章的细节而感觉不太放心,其实没有必要担心,因为我们了解的文章的大意以后,然后对文章做仔细阅读,比较难的短文理解起来就容易多了。略读时应该注意:主题句一般是短文第一个句子或者最后一个句子,偶尔位于段落的中间;每一段的主题句一般也是在每段的第一、二个句子或者最后一个句子。其次作者提供其写作意图,如:提供信息、描述人物、事物或者事件、讨论问题、说服某人、提出建议或者对两种观点或者事件进行比较。而其他的句子是对主题句的进一步发展及说明性的例子,有时是为主题句提供时间、地点或者原因等背景。主旨大意题常见的设问方式如下:1) What’s the main idea of this passage?2) What does the passage mainly tell us?3) The writer means to tell us that ______. 4) From the passage, we can learn/ conclude ______.5) What’s the best title for the passage?(2)具体细节理解题:考查对事实或者细节的理解和辨别,即考查短文中直接或间接提到的具体信息的细节及线索。对于这种阅读理解题,需要仔细比较所给的四个选项,找出语言表达差别的关键词来重点思考。做这种考试题我们一般用“扫读 Scanning”来从短文中寻找答案。 扫读是有目的地在短文中为寻找某一个具体的信息或者细节而进行的搜索性阅读。特别是寻找人名、地名、时间或者某一个关键词。找到这个关键词时要进行局部地细心地阅读,以保证所寻找的答案在此处。为了保证扫读的有效性,在扫读之前必须认真审题,因为审题的过程就是明确阅读目的的过程。一般来说,这种阅读理解测试题的答案是比较好找的。只要同学们仔细阅读,认真比较,把握准确的信息,是容易找到准确答案的。(3) 根据上下文猜测词义题:这种阅读理解测试题是对短文中某一个句子中的某一个超纲的单词或者短语画线,让考生猜其汉语意思或者英语解释意义。短文中出现的超纲词或者短语要求学生在读懂短文的内容,理解短文的大概意思的基础上并且根据短文上下文的意思和情景进行猜测和推断。一般来说这些词汇是比较难或者是同学们没有学过的。如果同学们的词汇量比较大,那么解决这种阅读理解测试题就有很大的优势。但是如果能够理解短文的内容和意思,通过上下句子和情景进行合理的猜测,其正确率还是比较高的。猜测单词的一些方法:1)首先要保持冷静,迅速判断。如果是对上下文理解影响不大的词,就不要停留,继续读下去。如果是影响理解的词,尤其是划线的词,就要运用猜测单词的技巧来猜测单词的意思。2)如果是 but 连接前后两个句子,那么其意思是表示转折,后面句子的画线单词表示的意思可能和前面的句子的意思是相反的。3)如果是 and 连接前后两个句子,那么后面句子的画线单词的意思可能和前面句子的意思一致。4)注意下文,有时后面的句子或在下文中可能解释这个单词的意义。5)有时即使猜测不出来单词的具体意思也不要紧,只需要了解这个单词是表示积极的还是消极的意思。通过辨认这个单词的位置来确定它是动词、形容词还是副词,然后从选项中选择。实例说明:【2012 福建福州】The Sydney Opera House is a very famous building in the world. It has become Sydney'sbest-known landmark and international symbol. The Opera House with a “sailing roof” wasdesigned by a famous Danish architect(丹麦建筑师), Utzon. The base for the building was started in 1959, years before the designs were finished. Utzon spent four years designingthe Opera House. In 1962, the designs were finalized(定稿) and the construction began. In1967, they started the decoration inside. It took 14 years in total to build the Opera House. Queen Elizabeth II officially opened it on October 20th, 1973.The Sydney Opera House cost around $100 million and was paid for by the public. 6,225 square meters of glass was used to build it. The Opera House includes 1,000 rooms. It is 185 meters long and 120 meters wide. The building’s roof sections weigh about 15 tons. Each year, this fantastic building attracts 200,000 tourists to come for a visit orenjoy events in it.The Opera House reaches out into the harbour(港湾). It is amazing and unforgettable, offering people a strong sense of beauty.1. The designer of the Sydney Opera House was from_________.A. America   B. Australia   C. England   D. Denmark2. Building the Sydney Opera House lasted__________.A. from 1959 to 1973     B. from 1962 to 1973C. from 1959 to 1967     D. from 1962 to 19673. The underlined word "construction" means__________ in Chinese.A. 创立 B.设计 C. 施工 D. 竣工4. __________ paid for the cost of the building of the Sydney Opera House. A. Utzon          B. The publicC. Queen Elizabeth II     D. The government5. Which is the best title for the passage?A. Sailing Roof         B. Travelling in SydneyC. The Sydney Opera House    D. The Opening of the Opera House【解析】1.D。细节理解题。根据第一段中的“The Opera House with a ‘sailing roof’ was designedby a famous Danish architect(丹麦建筑师), Utzon”可知,悉尼歌剧院是一个丹麦的建筑师设计的。所以,悉尼歌剧院的设计得来自丹麦。故选 D。2.A。细节理解题。根据第一段中的“The base for the building was started in 1959”以及“It took 14 years in total to build the Opera House…October 20th, 1973.”可知,悉尼歌剧院的建设从 1959 年持续到 1973 年。故选 A。3.C。词义猜测题。根据上文可知,设计已经定稿,因此下一步必然是施工,由此“construction”在此处具有“施工”的含义。故选 C。4.B。细节理解题。根据第二段中的“The Sydney Opera House cost around $100 million andwas paid for by the public.”可知,悉尼歌剧院的建设费用完全来自于公共开支。5.D。主旨大意题。本文主要介绍了悉尼歌剧院的设计、规模等,都是围绕悉尼歌剧院而写的。因此“The Sydney Opera House”是最好的标题。(4) 简单的推理判断题:考查学生根据短文的内容进行简单的判断或推理的能力。中考阅读理解不仅要读懂一个个的句子,而且要理解这些句子之间的内在联系。如果上下文之间存在未充分表达的内容,学生就应该充分激活头脑中的知识和经验,根据字面意思和句子的意思,通过语篇逻辑关系来研究细节的暗示、推敲作者的态度、理解文章的寓意。这就是我们平时所说的深层理解。深层理解是一种创造性的思维活动。它必须忠于原文,要以文章提供的事实和线索为依据,立足已知的知识来推断未知的知识,不能凭空想象、随意推测;它要求考生对文章的表面信息进行分析、挖掘和逻辑推理,不能就事论事,以偏概全。只有吃透文章的字面意思,才能有推理的前提和基础。判断推理题常见的设问方式:1) It can be inferred /concluded that ___.2) Which of the following conclusions can we draw according to the passage? 3 The writer suggests that ___.4 The writer probably feels that ___.5 From the passage, we can see ____________.实例说明:Take a class at Dulangkou School, and you’ll see lots of things different from other schools. You can see the desks are not in rows and students sit in groups. They put theirdesks together so they’re facing each other. How can they see the blackboard? There are three blackboards on the three walls of the classroom!The school calls the new way of learning “Tuantuanzuo”, meaning sitting in groups. Wei Liying, aJunior teacher, said it was to give students more chance to communicate.Each group has five or six students, according to Wei, and they play different roles (角色). There is a team leader who takes care of the whole group. There is a “study leader” who makes surethat everyone finishes their homework. And there is a discipline (纪律) leader who makes sure that nobody chats in class.Wang Lin is a team leader. The 15-year-old said that having to deal with so many things was tiring. “I just looked after my own business before,” said Wang. “But now I have to think about my five group members.”But Wang has got used to it and can see the benefits (好处) now.“I used to speak too little. But being a team leader means you have to talk a lot. You could even call me an excellent speaker today.”Zhang Qi, 16, was weak in English. She used to get about 70 in English tests. But in a recent test, Zhang got a grade of more than 80.“I rarely(很少)asked others when I had problems with my English. But now I can ask the team leader or study leader. They are really helpful.”We can tell from the story that some students __________ this new way of learning.A. get benefits from B. are tired of  C. cannot get used to  D. hate【解析】:A。写作意图推断题。从短文的作者写作意图可以判断作者是告诉人们杜朗口中学的学生从这种新的教学方法中得到益处。所以选择 A。2. 阅读理解的解题技巧:(1)事实细节题的方法和技巧:1)详读细节,理顺思路与文章脉络。文章绝不是互不相干的句子杂乱无章的堆砌。作者为文,有脉可循。如记叙文多以人物为中心,以时间或空间为线索,按事件的发生、发展、结局展开故事;论述题则包含论点、论据、结论三大要素,通过解释、举例来阐述观点。可根据文章的特点,详读细节,以动词、时间、地点、事件、因果等为线索,找出关键词语,运用“画图列表法”,勾画出一幅完整清晰的文章主题和细节的认知图。2)抓住文章的脉络和每一段中心,后面都是围绕这个中心展开分析,把握了文章的脉络后,相对来说定位就比较方便,解答细节题和主旨题就很方便了。3)学会瞻前顾后和左顾右盼方法来理解细节题目,也就是从短文的上下联系来找到解决问题的关键细节。4)注意引出细节的信息词,如:for example, an example of, the most important example, first, second, next, then, last, finally, to begin with, also, besides 等。(2)推理判断题的方法和技巧:阅读理解题中难度最大且出现频率很高的是推理判断题,这种题要求考生根据文章中出现的暗示,抓住内含语义,用逻辑思维的方法加以整理,然后做出合理的判断。推理的方法大致可分为:简单推理和复杂推理。1)简单推理 所谓简单推理就是以表面文字为前提,以具体事实为依据进行推理,做出判断。这种推理方式比较直接,只要弄清事实,即可结合常识推断出合理的结论。 2)复杂推理 复杂推理不但要以文字为依据,而且还要以文章的语境、内涵为前提。这是一种间接而复杂的逻辑推理方式。考生要推断出文章没有表明但又合乎逻辑的推理,就必须由表及里地归纳或演绎。下面是几种复杂的推理方法:★ 推测作者的写作目的和意图,此类的设题形式有:The purpose in writing this text is to .The author in this passage intends to .★ 推测作者的写作目的,必须要先了解文章的主题,然后分析作者的论述方法、论述的重点和材料的安排。★ 推测文章的观点或结论,此类设题形式有 :It can be inferred from the passage that . From the passage we can conclude that .这类问题问的不一定是全文的中心思想或作者的全部观点,可能只是文章中的某一观点。但要推测出文中的某一观点,仍离不开对全文主要观点或中心思想的把握。3)推断文章的出处,设题形式有 :The passage is most likely to be taken from .The passage is most likely a part of . 这类问题应从文章的内容或结构来判断其出处:报纸:前面会出现日期、地点或通讯社名称;广告:因其格式和语言特殊,容易辨认;产品说明:器皿、设备的使用说明会有产品名称或操作方式,而药品的服用说明会告知服用时间、次数、药量等。(3)单词猜测词义的方法和技巧:1) 根据上下文猜测词意2)根据构词法猜测词意 在阅读文章时,总会遇上一些新词汇,有时很难根据上下文来推断其词意,而它们对文章的理解又有着举足轻重的作用,此时,如掌握了一些常用的词根、前缀、后缀等语法知识,这些问题便不难解决了。例如:前缀 un-表反义词,如 happy、unhappy,fair、unfair,important、unimportant 等。后缀- ment 表名词,如 develop、development,state、statement,argue、argument 等。后缀-er、-or 或-ist 表同源名词,如 calculate/ calculator; visit/ visitor; law/ lawyer; wait/waiter; science/ scientist; art/ artist 等。 3) 通过因果关系猜词。 首先是找出生词与上下文之间的逻辑关系,然后猜词。有时文章借助关联词(如because,as,since,for,so,thus,as a result,of course,therefore 等等)表示前因后果。4)通过句法功能来推测词义。例如: Bananas,oranges,pineapples,coconuts and some other kind of fruit grow in warm areas.假如 pineapples和 coconuts 是生词,我们可以从这两个词在句中所处的位置来判断它们大致的意思。从句中不难看出 pineapples,coconuts 和 bananas,oranges 是同类关系,同属 fruit 类,因此它们是两样水果,准确地说,是菠萝和椰子。 5)通过描述猜词。 描述即作者为帮助读者更深更感性地了解某人或某物而对该人或该物做出的外在相貌或内在特征的描写。例如:The penguin is a kind of sea bird living in the South Pole. It is fat and walks in a funny way. Although it cannot fly,it can swim in the icy water to catch the fish.从例句的描述中可以得知 penguin 是一种生活在南极的鸟类。后面更详尽地描述了该鸟类的生活习性。 3. 阅读正误判断和任务型阅读以上涉及到的都是在中考题中出现最多的选择型阅读测试题的做题技巧。除此之外,还有阅读正误判断题和任务型阅读题两种考查形式。阅读正误判断题,难度逐渐降低,一般试题在短文中可以直接找到答案,也可以用上述的方法来做题。任务型阅读是近年来推出的新题型,命题灵活,题型多样,可能是问答题,也可能是翻译句子,填写表格信息等,能够很好地考查学生的英语综合能力。但是只要我们注意养成良好的阅读心理,提高阅读速度,就能做好这种题。解题时注意:(1)浏览试题,明确要求。带着问题去读短文,有的放矢。(2)浏览全文,捕捉有用信息。阅读时,注意有关的人物、事件、时间、地点、起因及一些定义、数据和一些关键词语,可以做出标记,有目的地把文后题目和短文中相关信息加以比较,从而找到正确 答案。(3)复读全文,抓住细节。答题时有问题,要重新在短文中寻找答案, 注意短文的首尾句或每一段的首尾句,那往往是事件的结果或作者的态度、意图等。(4)再读全文,核对答案。要用全文的主题大意重新审核各题答案,看前后是否一致,是否符合短文的主旨大意,细节方面是否和短文一致,是否有拼写和语法错误等。
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