吉大《大学英语(一)》第四课 动词的语态

发布时间:2024-04-10 09:04:05浏览次数:12
吉大《大学英语(一)》第四课 动词的语态Voice of Verb 1. 语态的基本概念和种类 语态是动词的一种形式,用来表明主语与谓语动词之间的关系。英语动词有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。谓语动词为主动语态的句子叫主动句,谓语动词为被动语态的句子叫被动句。例如:They built this bridge.(主动句)This bridge was built by them.(被动句) 2. 被动语态的构成 被动语态由“be+及物动词的过去分词”构成,助动词 be 有人称、数和时态的变化,其变化规则与 be 作为系动词的变化完全一样。英语主动语态的时态共有 10 种,而被动语态只有 8 种。 3. 8 种常用时态的被动语态举例 (1)一般现在时,例如: A lot of books are kept in our school library.我们学校图书馆有许多藏书。 (2)一般过去时,例如: A thief was caught last night.一个小偷昨晚被抓了。 (3)现在进行时,例如: The watch is being repaired.这块表正在修理。 (4)过去进行时,例如: The door was being painted at that time.那时门还在油漆。 (5)一般将来时,例如: The class meeting will be held next Saturday afternoon.班会下周六下午召开。 (6)过去将来时,例如: They said the work would be finished the next day.他们说这项工作第二天就能完成。 (7)现在完成时,例如: My bag has been stolen.我的包被偷了。 (8)过去完成时,例如: She said this airport had never been used.她说这个机场没有使用过。 4. 被动语态的用法 (1)当不知道谁是动作的执行者时,用被动语态。例如: His bike has been stolen.他的自行车被偷走了。 (2)在没有必要或不想指出谁是动作的执行者时,用被动语态。例如: China was librated in 1949.中国是 1949 年解放的。 (3)强调或突出动作的承受者时,用被动语态。例如: The plan has already been made.计划已经制订好了。 (4)用被动语态时,如需同时指出动作的执行者,可用“介词 by+动词执行者(宾格)”这一结构。例如: Midnight was written by Mao Dun.《子夜》是茅盾写的。 5. 带情态动词的被动结构 带情态动词的被动结构的固定句式为“情态动词+be+过去分词”,但也有个别带“to”的情态动词例外,如ought to 和 have to,它们的被动结构只能在不定式中。例如:The debt must be paid off before next month. 那笔债务必须在下个月前付清。The debt has to be paid off before next month. 那笔债务必须在下个月前付清。Oil can be turned into energy by burning it. 油经过燃烧可变为能源。You ought to be criticized for your carelessness. 由于粗心大意,你应当受到批评。 6. 带有双宾语的被动语态 看下面的两个例句,重点观察其谓语部分:She sent me a novel on my birthday.I allowed him an hour to finish the work. 从上面的句子可以看出,两个宾语分别是:直接宾语和间接宾语。将这种主动语态的句子变成被动语态的句子,可选两个宾语中的任何一个作为被动态句子的主语,而将另一个宾语作为“保留宾语”写入被动态的句中。但有一点要说明,如果选直接宾语作“主语”,有时要在被动态句子的“保留宾语”前加上合适的介词 。这些动词常有两种句式,即:give sb. sth., send sb. sth., buy sb. sth., 或者也可以说 give sth. to sb., send sth. to sb.,buy sth. for sb.。例如: (1)She sent me a novel on my birthday.(主动)  在我生日那天,她送给我一本小说。 I was sent a novel on my birthday.(被动) A novel was sent to me on my birthday.(被动) (2)My brother bought me a watch yesterday.(主动)  昨天我哥哥给我买了一块手表。 I was asked to help them.(被动) A watch was bought for me by my brother yesterday.(被动) 7. 带有复合宾语的被动语态 如果将带有复合宾语(即:宾语+宾语补足语)的主动态的句子变成被动态句子,只能选择原来句子的宾语作被动态句子的主语;而这时,原句里宾语补足语就变成了被动语态句子的“主语补足语”。例如: (1)The story made us laugh.(宾语补足语)  这个故事令我们发笑。 We were made to laugh by the story.(主语补足语) (2)They asked me to help them.(宾语补足语)  他们让我帮忙。 I was bought a watch yesterday.(被动) (3)We saw them coming over.(宾语补足语)  我们看见他们走过来了。 They were seen coming over.(主语补足语) 8. 不能用于被动语态的动词 (1)不及物动词不能用于被动语态,因为它们没有宾语。 (2)表示状态而不是动作的及物动词,如 break out, belong to, cost, deserve, fit, have (有、使),hold (盛下、装下),lack, resemble, suit, take part in, take place, want, wish 等动词不能变为被动语态。例如: Everybody wanted Doris to be the manager.大家都想让多丽丝来当经理。 We like everybody to say what they think.我们喜欢让人人都说出他们的看法。 Do you wish me to stay?你希望我留下吗? Will you help me (to) do the work?你可以帮助我干活吗? The war broke out in 1937.战争在 1937 年爆发。 This car belongs to me.这车是属于我的。 He has a good job.他有个好工作。(不能说:A good job is had by him.) They have a large house.他们有所大房子。 I'll have him come early.我要让他早来。 Though I like the dress, it doesn't fit me.尽管我喜欢那件连衣裙,但穿着不合适。(不能说:Though the dressis liked by me, I'm not fitted by the dress.) We lack manpower at the moment.我们现在缺少人手。 (不能说:Manpower is lacked by us at the moment.) My computer cost me seven hundred and ninety dollars.我花了 790 美元买这台计算机。 She resembles her father.她像她父亲。(不能说:Her father is resembled by her.) (3)短语动词中有些可以用于被动结构,有些则不可以,但没有规律可循,只能个别掌握。例如: I was very well looked after when I was working there.我在那里工作的时候,得到很好的照顾。 An overpass is being put up at the corner of the street.在那条街的拐角处正在建一个过街天桥。 Everybody agreed with me.大家都同意我的意见。(不能说:I was agreed with by everybody.) I walked into the house.我走进房子。(不能说:The house was walked into by me.) I broke into the house.我破门进入。(可以说:The house was broken into by me.) (4)反身代词及 each other, one another 作宾语时不能变为被动语态。例如: They acknowledged themselves to be defeated.他们承认自己被击败了。 She praised herself.她自己表扬自己。 He ruined himself.他毁了自己。 (5)下列及物动词有特殊的宾语,也不能变为被动语态。 The police officer shouted his loudest to stop the car.警官用最大的声音喊叫,想叫住那辆车。 The famous actress breathed her last.那位著名的女影星咽气了。 She nodded her approval.她点头同意。 I smiled my thanks.我微笑致谢。 The famous actress breathed her last.我微笑致谢。 He wishes to be somebody.他想成个人物。 He enjoys taking pictures.他喜欢摄影。 Keep silence, please.请保持安静。 They usually take a walk after supper.他们通常晚饭后散步。 9. 关于被动语态的几点说明 (1)有些动词形式上是主动,意义上是被动。例如: School begins in September.学校 9 月份开学。 The library doesn't open on Sunday.图书馆星期天不开放。 My pen writes well.我的钢笔好使。 The cloth washes well.这料子耐洗。 The dictionary sells well.这词典销路很好。 The book hardly sells.这书卖不出去。 The door will not shut/lock.门关(锁)不上。 Am I to blame?我该受责备吗? The house is to let.房子要出租。 The story is interesting to read.这故事读起来很有趣。 The film is worth seeing.这片子值得一看。 Your shirt needs washing.你的衬衫该洗了。 (2)make, see, watch, hear, notice, feel 等使役动词和感官动词的宾语后面可以接不带 to 的不定式作宾补。但在被动语态中,不定式符号 to 必须补上。例如: They made him go.他们让他去。 He was made to go.他被要求去了。 I heard him say good-bye to his friends.我听见他向他的朋友说再见。 He was heard to say good-bye to his friends.有人听到他向他的朋友说再见。 (3)除助动词 be 外,动词 get 有时也可跟过去分词构成被动语态,是比较口语化的一种被动语态。这种结构中很少用 by 短语。例如: I got lost in the huge market.在那个巨大的市场中我迷失了方向。 You might get killed/hurt.你会送命(受伤)的。 In the end this story got translated into English.这个故事最后被译成了英文。 His car got damaged in a road accident.他的车在交通事故中被毁了。 (4)“have/get+宾语+过去分词”这个句型也表达了一种被动的意思。例如: I'll have the bike repaired in no time. 我一会儿就把自行车修好。 I had my wallet stolen/lost last Sunday when I was shopping. 上星期天买东西的时候我的钱包被盗/丢了。 He got his leg broken when playing football.踢足球的时候他把腿摔断了。 I bought these books at a discount and had two hundred dollars saved. 我买了些打折的书,省了两百美元。 (5)在 need, want, require 后面,用动词的-ing 形式表达被动的意思。例如: My watch needs cleaning. (= needs to be cleaned)我的表需要清洗。 Your garden needs watering. (=to be watered)你的花园需要浇水。 Does your suit require pressing, sir? 先生,您的衣服要烫吗? The car wants servicing..这汽车要检修。
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