中考冲刺六:对话及交际用语技巧(基础知识)

发布时间:2024-05-29 23:05:53浏览次数:3
中考冲刺六:对话及交际用语技巧【真题再现】 单项选择题1. —Don’t forget to post the letter! 【2012 宁夏回族自治区】—________.A. Yes, I do   B. No, I don’t   C. Yes, I will   D. No, I won’t2.—I'm sorry I broke your glass. 【2012 山东济南】 —_____. Be careful next time. A. Sure B. It doesn't matter C. Yes, please D. No, thanks3.—I’ve got a ticket to the opening ceremony of the twenty-ninth Olympics. I’m leaving for London in a few days.—What a lucky guy! 【2012 山西】 A. It’s kind of you B. Enjoy yourself C. That’s all right4. —Shall we join in the Green World Summer Camp? 【2012 上海】 —________ A. Good idea. B. You're welcome.  C. Not at all. D. Never mind.5. —Congratulations! You've got a chance to be an exchange student! 【2012 上海】 —________ A. Thank you. B. I agree. C. Of course. D. Good luck.补全对话题【2012 陕西】 A)根据对话内容,将方框内符合对话语境的句子抄写在对话空白处,使对话恢复完整,选项中有两项是多余的。(Miss Yu is giving a class. Suddenly some bottles drop out of a student’s desk.)T: What’s the noise there?S: Sorry, Miss Yu. 1. T: (Walking over to take a look) Oh, so many bottles.S: I’m collecting bottles.T: 2. S: Because I want to make toys out of them.T: 3. If so, why not put a big paper box at the back of our classroom? Then your classmate can help collect the bottles.S: Thanks for your advice.T: 4. S: Yes, quite a few.T: 5. S: Of course, I’ll bring a few here tomorrow. T: Perfect!That’s an interesting idea.We can’t wait to see the toys you’ve made.Some bottles dropped onto the floor.Can you show some to us one day?Could you help us make some toys?Have you already made some toys?Why do you collect bottles?B) 根据下面对话中的情境,在每个空白处填入一个适当的语句,使对话恢复完整。 A: Hi, Bob! How was your last weekend?B: 1. I really had a good time.A: 2. .B: I played basketball.A: 3. ?B: Twice a week. I like it very much. How did you spend your last weekend? A: 4. .B: Sounds interesting. Do you often go to the mountains?A: Yes. Once a week. 5. ?B: I’d love to. But I’m afraid I can’t go with you this weekend. Maybe next week is OK.【答案与解析】单项选择题1.D。根据句意“不要忘记寄信”并结合选项可知,此处表示“我不会忘记的”。故选 D。2.B。Sure“当然了”;It doesn’t matter“没关系”;Yes, please.“是的,请吧”;No, thanks.“不,谢谢”。 句意:-对不起,我弄坏了你的玻璃。-没关系,下次小心些。故选 B。3.B。A 项的意思是“你太好了”;B 项的意思是“祝你玩得快乐”;C 项的意思是“不用谢”。根据上句“我要去伦敦”可知,此处表示“祝你旅行愉快”。故选 B。 4.A。Shall we…表示建议,答语 Good idea 意为“好主意”,符合语境,故选 A。 5.A。本题考查交际用语。对别人的祝贺要表示感谢,故选 A。 补全对话题A)1.Some bottles dropped onto the floor.2.Why do you collect bottles?3.That’s an interesting idea.4.Have you already made some toys?5.Can you show some to us one day?B)1. It was great/Great/Very good/Pretty good/It was wonderful2. What did you do(last weekend)3. How often do you play it/basketball/How many times a week do you play basketball4. I went to the mountains/I went to climb the mountains/I climbed the mountains/I went mountain climbing/I went climbing5. Would you love/like to go(to the mountains)with me/us(this weekend)Would you love/like to come/go with me /usWould/Will/Can you come/go with me/usWould /Will/Can you join us/Would you like to join us 【用法讲解】考试要求:中考交际用语主要考查学生运用英语进行简单的日常交际的能力,体现了英语日常用语的交际性和口语化特征。要做好交际用语测试题,要求学生能够熟练掌握英语的一些日常交际英语的口语表达,如:问路、借东西、看病、购物、打电话、提供帮助、表示感谢、邀请和应答、向别人道歉等日常用语,还要求学生从对话上下文所提供的材料中判断交际的情景和场合,选择适当的日常交际英语进行交流。特别要注意交际英语的口语化特点。因此学生要在日常学习中注意英语的习惯表达和文化背景知识,学会按照英、美人的文化习惯,用地道的口语来表达自己的想法。1. 交际用语中考题型1)单项选择这类交际用语考试题主要用小对话的方式来呈现,即两个或者三个句子就可以表达小的情景对话。这种考题主要涉及表示感谢、道歉、问候、介绍、告别、询问年龄、请求和允许、打电话、表扬和鼓 励、个人喜欢和爱好、同意和不同意、邀请和应答、劝告和建议、希望和打算、约会、祝愿和祝贺、餐饮、看病、谈论天气、安抚和安慰、购物和谈论价格、问路、请求帮助和提供帮助等情景。对话一般较简单,情景单一,可能是答语的一部分或整个答语设空,也可能是询问信息的句子设空,一般提供三到四个选项,要求学生选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。例如:-Thank you for the present you sent me. It’s so nice.-__________________________.A. No, thanks. B. I am glad you like it.C. Please don’t say so. D. No, it isn’t so good.〔解析〕答案是 B。从对话情景中理解上句是表示感谢,当你听到别人的赞扬,不能按照中国人的思维习惯回答“不好、不好”,在西方交际用语不能这样谦虚,要为别人喜欢你的礼物感到高兴,所以选择 B。例如:-Shall we go camping on the weekend?—_________. The weather forecast says it will rainy.A. I’d love to. B. I am afraid we can’t. C. That’s a good idea.  D. That’s all right.〔解析〕答案是 B。本题是考查对别人提出建议的应答,如果同意这个建议一般可以答“Good idea.”,但从对话后面的回答提供的情景可知天要下雨去不成,所以此题的应答是 B。2)补全对话:补全对话是考查学生的日常交际能力的另一个中考常用的题型,通常提供一个比较大的情景对话,一般都选用学生比较熟悉的情景,如打电话、购物、看病等,从中抽取一些句子或句子的一部分,要求学生根据对话的内容和情景,补全句子,使对话的内容和意思完整。也有的补全对话题把抽出的句子一起放在一个文本框中,有时还会给出一、二个多余的选项,学生必须根据对话的情景要求选出合适的句子,然后把序号填入空白处。这种题型一定要先通读对话,了解整篇对话的场景、说话人之间的关系、讨论的事件的线索等,再去选择选项,才能更准确地选择出正确的选项。这种情景交际用语的考查一般提供语言地道、对话情景具体、逻辑严谨和意义完整的交际情景,主要考查学生能否在不同的文化背景、不同的场合、对于不同的事情按照西方的文化风俗习惯和表达习惯用地道的英语来表达。例如:阅读并补全下列对话。A: 1. ____________________, sir?B: Yes, please. 2. ____________________ a pair of sports shoes.A: What size do you want, please?B: Size ten or eleven.A: OK! What about this pair?B: Sorry! I 3. ____________________ black shoes.A: Oh. We also have got blue ones.B: Can I 4. ____________________ on ?A: Yes, please.B: 5. ____________________ each pair?A: Thirty- five yuan.B: All right. I will take it.〔解析〕从对话的内容可以看出,对话的情景是购物,顾客想买一双运动鞋,是售货员和顾客之间的情景对话。理解了对话的主要情景和内容后,我们在补全对话的时候可以联想一些关于购物的日常交际英语。1. 本空考查售货员经常用的日常交际英语,一般售货员用 Can I help you? 或者 What can I do for you? 来招呼顾客,所以本空可以填写这两个句子中任何一个。2. 从对话下面句子的意思和情景可以判断是顾客想买一双运动鞋,所以本空填写 I want to buy/I’d like/ I am looking for 都可以。3. 从对话售货员问“这双怎么样?”和顾客的回答可以理解是他不喜欢这双运动鞋,所以本空填写 I don’t like 或者 I hate。 4. 从对话上下句的情景可以判断本空是顾客询问能否试穿,所以填写 May I try them on?5. 从对话下面的回答是价格(Thirty-five yuan.)可以判断上面的句子是询问这双运动鞋的价格,所以用 How much is each pair?来询问。2. 需要熟练掌握的交际用语1) 问候Hi! Hello! Good morning/ evening/afternoon.How are you doing?I am OK/ fine. / Thanks and you? /Very well, thank you.Please say hello to your parents. / Please give my best wishes to your parents. Sure. /All right.2) 介绍My name is .... Hello! How do you do?I am a student. I am from…. This is Mr/Mrs/Miss. I’d like you to meet Bob.Nice/ Glad/ Pleased to meet you.3)告别Good-bye. Bye. Bye-bye. Good night. See you later/then/ soon/tomorrow. I am sorry. I have to go now.4)感谢Thank you very much. /Thanks a lot. /Thank you for your help. It’s a pleasure. That’s OK/all right. You are welcome.5) 道歉Sorry. I am sorry. /I am sorry for losing your … /I am sorry to interrupt you. /I am sorry I am late./ I beg your pardon.That’s OK. /It’s all right. /Never mind. /It doesn’t matter./ It’s nothing.6) 请求和允许May I come in? Can/Could I use your …? Would/Do you mind if I open the door?Yes, please. Sure. Certainly. That’s all right. Of course,you can.I am sorry, it’s not allowed. I am afraid not. You’d better not.7) 打电话Hello! May I speak to Tom? Hello! I’d like to speak to Mr. Green?Is that Liu Hong speaking? This is Mary (speaking). / Mary speaking.May/ Can I leave a message? May/ Can I take a message? I’ll call back later/again. I’ll ring him/her up again.Hello! This is Mary speaking. Hello, who is that? Hold on, please. Just a moment, please.Hello, who is speaking? Sorry, he isn’t here right now. Can I take a message? This line is bad/ busy. Sorry, I am afraid you have the wrong number.8)表扬和鼓励Very good! Well done!Wonderful! Excellent! You speak English very well. Your dress is very beautiful. Come on! /Keep trying! /You can do it.Thank you.OK! I will try it again.9)喜欢和爱好This book is very interesting. I like this movie. I like to play computer games. I like taking photos. I enjoy listening to the music. I am interested in …This song is bad. I don’t like the movie at all. I don’t enjoy collecting stamps. I hate to do much homework. I prefer bananas.I like English better than math. My favorite color is blue.10) 同意和不同意Sure. /Certainly. /Of course. All right. /I agree. /No problem. That’s a good idea. Yes, I think so. No way. Of course not. I don’t agree. I don’t think so. I am afraid not.11)邀请和应答Would you like to go for a walk? You must come to dinner with us. May I invite you to dinner? What/ How about having a swim?OK! Thank you. I’d like that. Thanks. Yes, I’d love to. That would be very nice. No, thank you. It’s very nice of you, but my mother is ill. I’d love to, but I am afraid I have no time. I am sorry I can’t. What about another time?12)劝告和建议You had better go to see the doctor. You should listen to and read English every day. You need to buy a Chinese-English dictionary. Don’t rush/hurry/push. Please stand in line.Let’s go and have a look.What/ How about a picnic this Sunday?Why don’t you buy a computer? Why not go to a movie?13)希望和打算I will go with you. I am going to see my grandfather this Sunday. I want to find a pen pal. I plan to go to Hangzhou this summer. I am not going to buy a car. I wish to see you again. I hope to become a doctor.I hope so. / I hope not.14) 祝愿和祝贺Have a good day/time! Have a good journey/trip. Good luck! Enjoy yourself! Best wish to you. Happy New Year! /Merry Christmas! /Happy birthday! Thank you. The same to you. Congratulations! Well done!15) 餐饮Would you like something to eat/drink? What would you like to have for breakfast / lunch/ supper? Would you like some fish? Help yourself to some fish.Yes, I’d like to drink.... I’d like rice and chicken. Just a little, please. Can I have some soup? It’s so delicious. Thank you. I like green tea. Yes, please. /No, thanks.16) 看病What’s the matter? /What’s wrong with you? Do you have a fever? How long have you felt like this? How long have you been like this? It’s nothing serious. Take this medicine three times a day. You will be better/all right soon.I have a headache. /I feel terrible. / I feel bad/ awful. / I don’t feel well.I have got a pain here.17)谈论天气What’s the weather like today? / How is the weather in Beijing? It’s nice/ fine/ beautiful today.What a cold/hot day today! It’s sunny/ cloudy/ windy/ rainy/ snowy. It’s getting cool/ cold/ warm/ hot.18) 购物Can/ May I help you? / What can I do for you? How many/ How much would you like? What color/ size/ kind would you like? What about this one? Here is your change.I’d like/ I want a pair of shoe. How much is it/ are they? May I try it on? It’s too big/small. Sorry. It’s too expensive. Do you have any other colors/ sizes? That’s fine. I’ll take it. Just have a look. 19) 问路Excuse me. Where is the washroom? Can you tell me how to get to the post office? Which bus goes to World Park? Which is the way to the Bank of China? Could you tell me the way to the station?How can I get to No. 4 Middle School?It’s over there. It’s about 400 meters from here. Go down this street until you see the tall red building. Turn right/ left at the first/second crossing. You can take No. 15 bus. You’d better take a taxi. I am sorry. I don’t know. / Sorry, I am a stranger here.20)请求帮助和提供帮助Do you want me to clean the room? Can I help you? Would you like me to help you? What can I do for you? Let me take your bag.Yes, please. /Yes, thanks. /Thank you for help. No, thanks. / Thank you all the same. / That’s very kind of you but I can do it myself.3. 交际用语题解题技巧:1)了解英汉文化差异就称呼方面,在英美国家即使对长辈也可以直呼其名,在称呼别人的时候不能用表示职业的名词连用。例如:汉语中可以称呼警察叔叔、护士阿姨,但在英语表达的时候不能用 Policeman Uncle,Aunt Nurse,这会使英美国家的人感到莫名其妙。我们经常称呼先生的时候和名字连用,而英美国家的人把 Mr./Mrs/Miss 和姓连用。例如:Mr. Green. Miss White.。 就问候和告别用语的差异,不同的文化和风俗习惯,人们的问候方式和告别方式不同,所用的表示法也不同。我们见面的问候是“上哪里去?吃饭了吗?”,而英美国家的人的问候是“Hello! How are you?”,如果我们用中国人的习惯去表达会使他们感到不愉快,他们认为这是他们的私人的事情,别人无权干涉。所以要了解他们的问候语是:Hello! Hi! Good morning/afternoon/evening.等中国人的告别除了“再见”外,还有“慢慢走、走好”,但英美国家的人交际用语是“Goodbye. Bye-bye.”等。如果用中国人的表达习惯去表达他们会感到困惑,“为什么要慢慢走?”就赞扬用语的差异,英美国家的人一般比较乐于接受赞扬,当别人赞扬你的时候,一般说“Thank you.“;而中国人却比较谦虚。例如:英美国家的人赞扬一个女孩子的裙子很漂亮,会说“What a beautiful dress you’re wearing!”按照英美的表达习惯可以说:Thank you. 如果按照中国人的经常说“不,很一般”,他会误会你认为他的欣赏水平不高,只好耸耸肩走开了。就电话用语的差异,我们打电话时经常说 “喂,你是哪一位?”“你找谁?”而英美人打电话的时候经常首先说明自己是谁:“Hello! This is John speaking.”接电话的人也说“This is … speaking.” 如果询问对方:“Is that Mary speaking?”或者 Who is that(speaking)? 不能用“Who are you? Are you John?” 只要了解了打电话的日常交际英语的差异,才能正确应答。2)重视各种提示,充分理解上下文情景,发挥想象力。补全对话一般有中文、英语或者图片提示,做题前必须仔细阅读试题要求和有关提示,明确对话的语言情景和对话的功能,这样才能为更好地理解对话打好基础。快速浏览对话,可以了解对话的大概内容和其情景。例如是商店购物、书店买书、药店买药、水果店买水果、还是去看电影、参加生日聚会。判断准确了对话的情景,再根据其情景去联想有关的交际用语,把对话上下句的情景前后联系,根据回答写问句,根据问句写回答。所填入的句子既要在整体上服从对话的情景和内容,又要在局部上符合对话和语法关系。
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