动词的被动语态 基础讲解

发布时间:2024-05-30 00:05:02浏览次数:23
动词的被动语态【真题再现】1. — Our classroom ____________ every day. 【2012 福建福州】— So it is. It's our duty to keep it clean and tidy.A. cleans B. is cleaning C. is cleaned2. In order to make our hometown more beautiful, trees _______ around the city every year. 【2012 贵州贵阳】 A. plant B. are planted C. will plant3. The task____ in an hour. Then we can go home and have a good rest. 【2012 安徽省】A. was finished B. will be finished C. has been finished D. can't be finished4. Today, computers are really helpful. They ________ everywhere. 【2012 北京】A. use B. are used C. used D. were used5. Hot water ________ in the students' flats from 5 pm to 7 pm now. 【2012 广东】A. supplies B. is supplied C. supplied D. was supplied6. You have to stay behind if your homework ________ before five o'clock. 【2012 湖北黄石】A. isn't done B. won't be done C. doesn't do D. wasn't done7. I ___________ little time to get ready for the test, so I wasn’t confident at thattime. 【2012 湖北十堰】A. gave B. didn’t give C. was given D. wasn’t given8. Tony to take part in the talk show on CCTV-3 the day before yesterday. 【2012 湖北孝感】A. invites B. invited C. is invited D. was invited【答案与解析】1. C。由于句中主语是“Our classroom”,教室只能是被打扫,因此需要用被动语态来表达,再由句中“every day”确定,此处应该用一般现在时,其结构为 is cleaned。故选 A。2. B。trees 与 plant 存在着被动关系,应用动词的被动语态。根据句意“为了我们的家乡更美丽,每年围着城市多种些树”。故选 B。3. B。由“in an hour”可知用将来时态,主语又是物,所以用将来时的被动语态。4. B。句意为“计算机被应用到每一地方”。由句意可知用一般现在时的被动语态。5. B。由于主语是 Hot water,可知用被动语态,由时间状语“from 5 pm to 7 pm now”可知用一般现在时的被动语态。.6. A。由句意“如果你的作业在五点钟前没有被完成,你就必须留下来”。if 引导的条件状语从句经常用一般现在时表示将来的意义。且本句的主语是 your homework,要用被动语态。7. C。由句意“我几乎没有(被给)时间准备考试,所以那时不自信。”可知用一般过去时的被动语态。8. D。句意为“托尼前天被 CCTY-3 邀请参加了脱口秀”。用一般过去时的被动语态。【用法讲解】考试要求:中考要求掌握:动词的主动语态和被动语态区别与使用,不同时态的被动语态形式及情态动词的被动语态形式。英语动词有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态,主动语态表示句子的主语是谓语动作的执行者;被动语态是表示句子的主语是谓语动作的承受者。如:We often clean the blackboard.(我们是擦黑板的执行者即主动语态)The blackboard is often cleaned by us. (黑板是 clean 的承受者即被动语态)。1. 被动语态的结构  一般现在时:am / is / are + 及物动词的过去分词  一般过去时:was / were + 及物动词的过去分词  一般将来时:will / shall be + 及物动词的过去分词  现在完成时:have / has been + 及物动词的过去分词   现在进行时:am / is / are being + 及物动词的过去分词  过去完成时:had been + 及物动词的过去分词 如:You are wanted on the phone. 有你的电话。   China was liberated in 1949. 1949 年中国解放。   The problem will be discussed tomorrow. 明天将对这个问题进行讨论。   Not a book in the library has been taken away.    图书馆里没有一本书被人拿走。   My bike is being repaired.我的自行车正在修理。   The book had been borrowed when I got to the library.     我到了图书馆时,那本书已经借出去了。2. 主动语态与被动语态的转换(1)把主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语。(2)把谓语变成被动结构(be+过去分词),根据被动语态句子里主语的人称和数,以及原来主动语态句子中动词的时态来决定 be 的形式。(3)把主动语态中的主语放在介词 by 之后作宾语,将主格改为宾格。 如:All the people laughed at him.   →He was laughed at by all people.   They make the bikes in the factory.   →The bikes are made by them in the factory.   He cut down a tree.   →A tree was cut down by him.3. 含有情态动词的被动语态  含有情态动词的主动句变成被动句时,由“情态动词+be+过去分词”构成,原来带 to 的情态动词变成被动语态后“to”仍要保留。  We can repair this watch in two days.  →This watch can be repaired in two days.  They should do it at once.  →It should be done at once.4.含有双宾语的主动语态变为被动语态  主动语态: 主语 + 谓语动词 + 间接、直接宾语 + 其他  被动语态: 间接宾语 + be + 过去分词 + 直接宾语 + 其他(比较常用)  或:直接宾语 + be + 过去分词 + 介词(for / to) + 间接宾语 + 其他  如:My father gave me a new book on my birthday.     → I was given a new book on my birthday (by my father).     → A new book was given to me on my birthday (by my father).       我的父亲在我的生日那天给我买了一本新书。    My father bought me a new computer yesterday.    → I was bought a new computer yesterday (by my father).    → A new computer was bought for me yesterday (by my father).      我的父亲昨天给我买了一台新电脑。5.含有短语动词的主动语态变为被动语态  有些相当于及物动词的短语动词,如“动词+介词”,“动词+副词”等,也可用于被动语态,但要把它们看作一个整体,不能分开。  如: She looks after her grandmother.   → Her grandmother is looked after (by her).       她照顾她的祖母。6.带有复合宾语的主动语态变为被动语态  带有复合宾语(宾语+宾语补足语)的主动语态变为被动语态时,只把宾语变为被动语态的主语,原来 的宾语补足语不动。  如:His teacher found him a very good pupil.     → He was found a very good pupil by his teacher. 他的老师发现他是一个很好的学生。7.变被动语态的其他注意点(1) 在主动句中, let, make, see, hear 等动词后作宾补的动词不定式不带 to,但在被动句中,则要保留 to。 如:Linda’s parents make her practice the piano every Sunday.   →Linda is made to practice the piano every Sunday.琳达的父母亲使她每天练习钢琴。(2) 有些及物动词如 have(有),reach, cost 等,以及有些连系动词如 smell, taste, sound, feel 等,不用于被动语态。  如:【误】 Five dollars is cost by this book.   【正】 This book costs five dollars. 书花费了 5 元。   【误】 The food is tasted nice.   【正】 The food tastes nice. 食物尝起来挺好。(3) 如 move, lock, shut, open 等作不及物动词与 can’t, won’t 等连用时,以及如 read, write,wash, clean 等作不及物动词与 well, easily 等副词连用时,已含有被动意义,因此形式上不再采用被动结构。  如:The door won’t open. 门不能开了。    The clothes wash well. 衣服洗好了。
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