动词时态二 基础讲解

发布时间:2024-05-30 00:05:01浏览次数:9
动词时态二【真题再现】1.—Hello, may I speak to Mr. Smith? 【2012 福建福州】—Sorry, he isn't in. He _____________the office.A. has been to B. has gone to C. has been away2. I ____ Mr. Smith since he moved to Shanghai. 【2012 北京】A. didn’t hear from B. don’t hear fromC. won’t hear from D. haven’t heard from3. She_____ her hometown for many years. No one nearly knows her. 【2012 鸡西市】A. has been away from B. has left C. had left4. Our English teacher is very nice. We _______friends since three years ago. 【2012广东】A. were B. became C. have been D. have made5. He asked me where the 2012 Olympics _______ held. 【2012 湖南常德】A. was B. will be C. would be6. I ______ TV when my parents came back. 【2012 湖南永州】A. am watching B. was watching C. watched7. —You haven't been to the West Lake, have you? 【2012 广东】— ___________. But I will go there with my parents this summer vacation.A. No, I haven't B. No, I didn't C. Yes, I have D. Yes, I did8. —What did the teacher say just now?—Sorry, I didn’t hear it. I ________ out of the window.【2012 湖北荆州】A. look B. looked C. am looking D. was looking【答案与解析】1. B。考查现在完成时的用法。has been to 表示去过某地,现在已经回来;has gong to 表示去了某地,现在还没回来。由答语中“Sorry, he isn’t in”可知 “史密斯先生不在家,他去了办公室”。故选 B。2. D。由 since 引导的时间状语,可知用现在完成时,句意为“自从史密斯先生搬家到上海我就没有收到他的来信”。3. A。由 for many years 可知用延续性动词的现在完成时,句意为“她离开家乡许多年了”。4. C。由 since three years ago 可知用现在完成时,句意为“自从三年前我们就是朋友”。5. C。本题考查宾语从句的时态,主句是过去时,宾语从句要用相应的过去时,表示过去将要发生的事,应用过去将来时。6. B。句意为“当我父母回来时,我正在看电视”,由“when my parents came back”.可知表示过去某一时刻正在发生的事,应用过去进行时。7. A。本题考查反义疑问句的回答,由于句子是现在完成时态,回答的事实是否定的,即“没有曾去过 West Lake”,所以用现在完成时的否定回答。8. D。表示过去某一时刻正在发生的事,用过去进行时,所以选 D。【用法讲解】考试要求:英语的动词的时态共有十六种,但是中考常考的主要有八种,一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时、现在进行时、现在完成时、过去进行时、过去将来时,过去完成时等时态的构成和用法,而且前五种是考查重点,现在完成时尤其是时态考查的重点,也是难点。本节主要讲述一下现在完成时,过去将来时、过去进行时和过去完成时。1. 现在完成时现在完成时的构成:主语+have/has+动词的过去分词例如:I have watched the TV play. 我已经看过这部电视剧了。 We have lived here since 2008. 自从 2008 年我就住在这里。 现在完成时的用法:(1)表示发生在过去的动作对现在造成的影响或者结果,常用的状语有 already, yet, not… yet, now, just, by this time 等。例如:The bus has come here. 公共汽车已经来了。Someone has cleaned the window. 有人已经擦了窗户。(2)表示过去已经开始,持续到现在而且可能继续下去的动作。常与表示一段时间的状语连用,如 this week, these days, so far, in the past few days, since the end of last year, for a long time 等。例如:We have been here for two years. 我们在这里两年了。注意:(1)buy,borrow,die 等非延续性动词(也称为瞬间动词)的肯定形式一般不能和表示一段时间的 for 短语及 since 短语(或从句)连用,这时要用相应的动词代替这些非延续性动词。例如:I have bought the bike for two years. (×)I have had the bike for two years. (√)由于 buy 是瞬间动词,无法延续两年,所以改为延续性动词 had。瞬间动词与延续动词的转换:buy—have  stop—be over  leave—be away  come back—be back borrow—keep die—be dead begin—be on  fall asleep—be asleeparrive—be here get up—be up join—be in/be a member例如:They borrowed the book two weeks ago. → They have kept the book for two weeks. A month has passed since he left home.→ He has been away from home for a month.(2)注意以下表示法的含义及用法:have been (to): 曾经去过或到过(某地)(表示某人过去的经历)have gone (to):去(某地)了 (现在可能在途中或已经到达某地)have been in… +一段时间: 已呆在某地一段时间了例如:He has been to Hangzhou several times. 他到过杭州几次了。He has gong to Hangzhou, so he can’t help us. 他去杭州了,所以他不可能帮助我们。She has been in London for half a year. 她在伦敦已经半年了。(3)现在完成时和一般过去时的区别:现在完成时强调这一动作与现在的关系,如对现在产生的结果、影响等,所以不能和表示过去的时间状语连用;一般过去时只表示过去的事实,不表示和现在的关系,可以和表示过去的时间状语连用。例如:—Have you seen the film? —Yes, I have. (表示结果:已经看过了,因此了解了这部电影)—When did you see it? —I saw it last Sunday. (表示事实:过去做的一件事的时间)He has taught this class for two years. (现在仍教着,或者刚刚停止)He taught this class for two years. (过去教过)2. 过去进行时:过去进行时的用法:  表示说话的过去某个时刻或某一阶段正在进行的动作。这一特定时间除了有上下文暗示外,经常和表示过去时间的状语 then,a moment ago,at this time yesterday,at ten last night,at that time/ moment 等连用。例如:—What were you doing at this time yesterday? 昨天这个时候你正在做什么?   —I was cooking with my mother. 我正和我妈妈一起做饭。过去进行时与一般过去时的区别: A. 过去进行时表某一行为的“片断”,一般过去时表示行为的“整体”和存在的状态。 I was reading the book at that time. (未读完,“读”的片段) I read the book yesterday. (已读完,表整个“读”) B. 过去进行时多与一段持续的时间状语连用。 It was raining all night 整个晚上在下雨。He was writing a letter the whole of afternoon. 他整个下午在写信。 C. while 引导的时间状语从句常用进行时。 He broke a chair while he was jumping up and down. 他在跳上跳下的过程中弄坏了椅子。D.while 所在主从句动作持续相等时间时,主从句一般都用进行时;如果两个动作一长一短时,经常是短的用一般过去时,长的用过去进行时。 I was cooking the dinner while he was playing the piano. 他在弹钢琴时我在做饭。 I saw him while I was walking to the station. 我在去往车站时看见了他。.3. 过去完成时的用法:过去完成时和现在完成时的用法基本相似,表示某个动作在过去的某个时间之前已经完成,即“过去的过去”。现在完成时以现在为基准,而过去完成时则以过去某个时刻为基准。1. 过去完成时动词表示过去某一时间或某一动作之前完成的动作或状态。在强调过去某一动作发生在另一动作之前时。例如:I had finished my homework before you came here.在你来这里之前我已经完成我的家庭作业。 He said that he had seen you before. 他说他以前见过你。2. 过去完成时词可以表示过去某一时刻之前发生的动作或呈现的状态,这一动作一直持续 或将继续下去。例如:The bus had already left by the time I got there.在我到达那里之前,公共汽车已经开走了。By six o’clock they had worked for eight hours. 不迟于六点钟他们已经工作八个小时了。3. 在含有间接引语的宾语从句中,主句经常是一般过去时,从句常用过去完成时。例如:He told me that he had already seen the film.他告诉我他已经看过那部电影了。4. 过去将来时的用法:(1)表示过去某一时间看将来发生的动作或存在的状态。常用在宾语从句中,由 would+动词原形构成。例如:They said they would come the next day. 他们说第二天就回来。(2)表示曾经打算或准备做的动作,were/was+动词原形构成。例如:Your father said he was going to visit your school next week.你爸爸说他下个星期要到你的学校参观。 I thought it was going to rain. 我认为要下雨了。(3)go,come,leave,arrive,start 等动词,其过去进行时表示过去按计划即将发生的动作。 He said he was coming this evening. 他说他今晚要来。
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