中考冲刺五:任务型阅读技巧(基础讲解)

发布时间:2024-06-18 00:06:13浏览次数:17
中考冲刺五:任务型阅读技巧【真题再现】【2012 浙江衢州市】任务型阅读:阅读短文,完成第 1~5 小题。When you stay away from your home for a long time, you start to miss your good old bed, your good old parents. Believe it or not, you’re feeling homesick(想家的). You can help yourself to feel less homesick. Here’s how:● 1 If you’re going away from home, bring your favourite pajamas(睡衣). You can also bring some pictures of the people who you may miss. You can look at them any time you want.● 2 The busier you are, the less time you’ll have to feel homesick. Spend yourfree time on music, sports or books. Try to join in activities wherever you are. ● 3 You can make a plan for when you’ll call your mum or dad. You can also keep in touch with family and friends by emails or text messages.● 4 Sometimes, telling someone that you’re feeling a little homesick will helpyou feel better. Maybe you can tell a friend that you feel homesick and the two of you can do something fun.从 A、B、C、D 中选择正确的选项作为文章第 2~5 段的小标题,并填入第 1~4 四个空格中。1.   2.   3.   4. A. Keep yourself busyB. Tell someone your feelingsC. Stay in touchD. Bring something familiar with you5. Which is the best title for the passage?A. How to stay away from homeB. How to do something funC. How to feel less homesickD. How to miss your home【2012 湖北随州市】 任务型阅读 The computer has become an important part of people’s lives. It has its own special words. One example is the word mouse. A computer mouse is not a small gray animal. It is a small device(设备) that you move around on a table in front of a computer. It was called a mouse because it looked like a real mouse with a tail at one end. Using a computer takes some training. People who are experts are sometimes called hackers. A hacker is usually a person who writes computer programs in a special computer language. But the word hacker is also used to describe a person who tries to steal information from a computer. Another well-known computer word is Google. It is the name of a popular search engine(搜索引擎). People use the search engine to find information about everything on the Internet. If you Google someone, you might find that person’s name on a blog. A blog is a personal diary online. It might contain stories, pictures or songs on it. Some people addinformation to their blogs every day.根据短文内容完成表格。每空一词。In formation Card What the passage is about Computer 1.________How the computer “mouse” got its nameBecause of its 2. ________What “Google” is A computer search 3.________How many computers words the passage talks about4. ________【答案与解析】【2012 浙江衢州市】任务型阅读:阅读短文,完成第 1~5 小题。[1.D。本段中两次出现 bring,所以答案为 D。2.A。根据“The busier you are…”可知答案。3.C。根据 “You can also keep in touch with family and friends”可知答案。4.B。根据 “telling someone that you’re feeling a little homesick will help you feel better.”可知答案。5.C。根据第一段中 “You can help yourself to feel less homesick. Here’s how”可知答案。【2012 湖北随州市】 根据短文内容完成表格。每空一词。1. words  2. shape  3. engine  4. Four 【用法讲解】考试要求:许多省市中考英语试卷出现了一种综合阅读理解题型——任务型阅读。任务型阅读是一种主观性试题,也有人称为“读后做”,要求考生阅读短文后在理解的基础上,通过一定的判断、推理、归纳总结,去完成各种任务或者解决某种问题,这种题型介于阅读和写作之间,充分考查学生运用英语完成任务的能力。考生需要理解短文并且具备从短文材料中收集有关的各种信息,然后加工整理输出信息的能力。1. 任务型阅读的题型:任务型阅读主要考查学生收集信息、整理信息的能力,是对语言综合应用能力的考查,考查的题型多样、命题灵活,可以是翻译句子,也可以是改写句子、还原句子。还可以是填写表格或回答问题。命题人对试题的难度也易于掌握,可以是单词拼写这样较简单的题,也可以是同义词转换等中档题,还可以有归纳主题大意、改写句子等高档题。近年来各省中考试题中任务型阅读主要题型如下:1)阅读选择配对根据阅读材料中所提供的语言信息找出与题意要求相匹配的选项。这种选择题和四选一的题目不同,选项可能是句子或图片,形式可能是段落大意的归纳与段落的连线,但是可能不是一对一连线,一般都给出多余选项。【注意】 要认真阅读题干要求,如果是上下句搭配,要看清楚题目的前半个句子的内容要点,注意句子与短文的联系,切不可只看句子的部分内容而造成理解上的偏差,造成配对失误。要根据短文的内容和作者的意图去搭配、注意配对后的句子内容完整、与短文的内容保持一致。短文的段落主题和段落配对,要抓住短文段落的要点,要全面理解段落内容之间的关系,不能以偏概全。请看下面例题:【2012 河南省】 You may feel comfortable with some people. You spend an hour with them and feel as ifyou have known them half a life. These people have something in common. And once we know what it is, we can try to do it ourselves.How is it done? _____1_____ If you follow the skills, you’ll make friends with people quickly.First of all, good talkers are questions. _____2____ One well-know businesswoman says, “At business lunches, I always ask people what they did that morning. It’s a common question, but it will get things going.” From there you can move on to some otherquestions. And how he answers will let you know how far you can go._____3____ This point seems clear, but it isn’t. Your question should have a point and help to tell what sort of person you are talking to. And to find out, you really haveto listen carefully and attentively.Real listening at least means some things. _____4____ If someone sticks to one topic, it means he’s really interested in it. Real listening also means not just listening to words, but to tones(声调) of voice. If the voice sounds boring, then, it’s time for you to change the subject.Finally, good talkers know well when to say good-bye. Remember to give him a handshake and say, “I’ve really enjoyed meeting you.” _____5_____ Let people know whatyou feel, and they may walk away feeling as if they’ve known you half their life.根据材料内容,从下面五个选项中选出能填入文中空缺处的最佳选项,使短文意思通顺,内容完整,并将其标号填写在下面题号后的横线上。A. Almost anyone will answer a question.B. Here are several skills that good talkers have.C. If you want to see that person again, don’t keep it a secret.D. First, it means not to change the subject of the conversation.E. Second, once good talkers have asked questions, they listen to the answers.1._______ 2. _______ 3. ______ 4. ______ 5. ______【答案与解析】1.B。根据下文所提供的可以遵循的几条技巧可知,此处应表示“好的谈话者拥有的技巧”,故选B。2.A。根据第三段中的“First of all, good talkers ask questions.”可知,此处表示“几乎每个人都将回答问题”,故选 A。3.E。根据上文“First of all”可知,此处列举了第二规则,故选 E。4.D。根据下文中的“Real listening also means not just listening to words,”可知,此处表示“首先,它意味着……”,故选 D。5.C。根据下文“Let people know what you feel”可知,此处表示“不要保守秘密”,故选 C。2) 阅读短文填空:根据短文提供的语言信息,以填写词语的方式完成文后各题,其形式主要有完成句子、补全信息、所给短文的缩写或制定各种规则等任务形式。所填的词或词组往往具有很高的概括性和准确性,因此,考生必须认真阅读材料,尽可能地从短文中找到所要填写的词语或者用其同义词、近义词或短语填空、有时甚至反义词或短语可能用于与短文中对应句子意思相反的语句中。【注意】阅读填空一般是原短文的改写,所以必须注意原短文的内容、情景和一些关键词,对照原短文的句子和一些词汇、短语,然后用同义词汇、短语来替换。短文填空要遵循原短文的内容和要点,不能脱离原作者的意思乱填空。有一些空在遵循原短文的前提下,又需要适当发挥,答案可能不是唯一的。请看下面例题:【2012 贵州铜仁市】阅读下面短文,然后根据短文内容每空填写一个单词。 Katie Spotz is a 22-year-old girl form America. She wants to cross the Atlantic Ocean by boat. If she succeeds, she’ll be the youngest and the first American to finish the 2500-mile trip. Spotz began sailing when she was at university, but she has never tried to sail such a long way before. It will be a great challenge for her. In recent years, she has swum all the way down the 325-mile Allegheny River and traveled by bike from Seattle to Washington. Spotz knows that she may see some dangerous things during the trip. It will be very dangerous if she meets very bad weather in the middle of the sea. But she believes that she can deal with all the difficulties. “I never thought I could run 26 miles,” she said. “But once I finished it, I realized that maybe I could do something even more difficult.” Spotz wants to collect money by going on this trip. She wants to collect money for an organization called “Blue Planet run”. The organization offers free, safe drinking water to people who need it. It’ll take her about three months to finish this trip. Good luck to this brave girl and best wishes to her!The age of Spotz (1)______ years oldThe distance of the trip (2)______ milesA dangerous thing duringthe trip isthe (3)______ weatherThe purpose of the trip to collect (4)____for an organizationThe trip will take About (5)______months .【答案与解析】(1)22 (2)2500 (3)bad (4)money (5)3/three(1)根据短文第一句“Katie Spotz is a 22-year-old girl form America.”可知。 (2)根据短文第三句“she’ll be the youngest and the first American to finish the 2500-mile trip.”可知。(3)根据第三段第二句“It will be very dangerous if she meets very bad weather in the middle of the sea”可知。 (4)根据第五段的第二句 She wants to collect money for an organization called “Blue Planet run”.可知。 (5)根据最后一段第一句“It’ll take her about three months to finish this trip.”可知。3) 阅读短文改写句子这种题型要求在阅读材料的基础上,根据命题要求,改写文中划线的句子,或将文中的某一个句子译成英语或者汉语等。这一形式涉及到写,就应当特别注意书写规范、拼写无误、语法正确等。【注意】要认真分析短文中划线句子的语法结构,注意句子的时态、语态,是简单句还是复合句,然后根据要求进行句型改写。要注意一些同义词短语的替换,为改写同义句打好基础。句子的意思、时态不能改变,改变的是句子的不同表达方式。对于一些翻译要注意英语和汉语的不同表达,切不可按照汉语的思维方式来翻译。请看下面例题:【2012 湖北恩施】When I was a child, my parents always told me that I should never talk to strangers. This was part of a whole list of things I should never do: never accept food or candy from strangers, never get in a car with strangers, and so on.But if we didn’t start a conversation with strangers, we’d never make new friends. We’d never get a job. ①We may miss the joy that comes from talking with strangers. And the more people you know, the more chances you can find.The following passage offers you some advice on how to ②break the ice. Don’t just stare at your shoes. Go and say “Hi” to that new guy. It will be easier to break the ice if you know more about different cultures.British: Beautiful day, isn’t it?The weather in Britain is changeable. So, it’s one of the topics the British care most about. And there’s a simple rule: Say “Yes” whether you agree with the person’s idea on the weather or not. ③That’s because the British start a conversation using the weather so that they can continue their talk.French: Where did you go on holiday?To talk with a French person, the safest way is to ask about his or her last holiday. French students enjoy a 10-to-15-day holiday every two months. French employees(雇员)get more than six weeks of holidays per year.American: So, where are you from?The US is so big and people move so often that location is always a source(来源) of talk. You can try to find a connection with the place they’re from. For example, if someone’s from Los Angeles, you could say, “Oh, I have a friend who studied there.”(1) 将文中①处划线句子翻译成汉语。_______________________________________________(2) 将文中②处划线短语翻译成汉语。_______________________________________________(3) 将文中③处划线句子改写成同义句。That’s because the British start a conversation using the weather ______ ______their talk.(4) What do you usually talk about to start a conversation with a French person?_______________________________________________(5) What is the main idea of the passage?_______________________________________________【答案与解析】(1) 我们可能会错过与陌生人交流的快乐。 miss 在此处的意思是“错误”;that 引导定语从句修饰 joy;come from 的意思是“来自于”;talk with sb.表示“同某人谈话”。(2) 打破沉默/打破僵局/开始说话。break the ice 是习惯用法,表示“打破沉默,打破僵局”。(3) to continue/ for continuing use sth. to do sth.=use sth. for doing sth. 用……来做……(4) I/ We can/ usually talk about his/ her (last) holiday./ A holiday./ Holidays. 根据“To talk with a French person, the safest way is to ask about his or her last holiday.”可知答案。(5) How to start/ begin a conversation with a stranger/ How to break the ice (with strangers). 文中“The following passage offers you some advice on how to break the ice.”是中心句,起到承上启下的作用,据此可以作答。因为任务型阅读命题的灵活性,除了上述题型外,各地中考题中还有根据释义写出文中出现的单词,或要求学生阅读一段文字,并根据文中所提供的信息画出示意图,如:路径、空间位置的设计图、物体形状图等题型,其目的都是考查学生运用语言去做事的能力。但是,无论题型如何变换,只要我们有扎实的英语知识、灵活的解题方法、尤其是认真地解题态度,都会迎刃而解的。2. 任务型阅读的解题技巧:1) 明确任务。由于题目要求形式多样,在同一篇阅读材料中会要求完成不同的任务,因此解题前要先明确任务,看清要求,做到心中有数。 2) 一一对应,紧扣原文。即在原文中找出问题的题干所包括的信息部分,这样就可以快速准确地抓住有效信息,确保答题的准确性。如果是根据英文释义写单词的题,则一定要确保所填的单词来源于原文,切不可脱离原文,随意发挥。3) 注意读写结合。任务型阅读不仅考查学生阅读理解层面的能力,更加注重考查学生“写”的能力。若是写单词,则要注意拼写正确,词形、词性有无变化,是否需要大写;若所要完成的是短语或句子成分,则更需谨慎对待,依据所给题干分析要完成的是什么句子成分,需用什么样的表达方式,不可简单草率地将文中信息直接挪用。4) 认真检查。完成任务后要重新审视材料,检查所做的答案是否复合要求,同时语言要精练准确。
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