Internet Education College BLCUFinal Test of Linguistics (A)(Feb 2008) 07/ND-D/FT Class__________ Student ID Number_________Name___________ Score____________考生须知：1． 考试时间 120 分钟2． 本试卷分试题册和答题纸。3． 所有答案均需做在答题纸上，写在试题册上无效。I. Choices (15X2)1. “Sweets” and “candy” are used respectively in Britain in and America, but refer to the samething. The words are ($ $ $ ) synonyms. A. collocational B. dialectal C. complete D. stylistic2. The different phones which can represent a phoneme in different phonetic environments arecalled the ____ of that phoneme.$$$ A. phones B. sounds C. phonemes D. allophones$ 3. “We shall know a word by the company it keeps.” This statement represents _______. $$$ A. the conceptualist view$$$$$$$$$ B. contexutalism $$$ C. the naming theory$$$$$$$$$$$ D. behaviourism$ 4. According to F. de Saussure, ____ refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all themembers of a speech community.$$$ A. parole$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ B. Performance C. langue$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$D. Language5. ____ modify the meaning of the stem, but usually do not change the part of speech of theoriginal word. $ A. Prefixes B. Suffixes C. Roots$$$$$$$$$$$$$ D. Affixes 6. The term _______ linguistics may be defined as a way of referring to the approach whichstudies language change over various periods of time and at various historical stages.$ A. synchronic$ $ $ B.diachronic$ $ $ C. comparative$ $ D. historical comparative7. Changes in a language are changes in the grammar of the speakers of the language. This meansthat phonemes, __________, words and grammatical rules may be borrowed, added, lost oraltered.A. phrases B. sentences C. morphemes D. utterances
8. Of the following sound combinations, only _______ is permissible according to the sequentialrules in English. A. kibl B. bkil$ $ $ $ $ $ C. ilkb$ $ $ $ $ D. ilbk9. The grammaticality of a sentence is governed by _______. A.$ grammatical rules B.$ selectional restrictions C.$ semantic rules D.$ semantic features 10. In general, the __________ stage begins roughly in the second half of the child's second year.A. babbling B. one-word C. two-word$ $ D. multiword11. Words that are close in meaning are called ______________. $ A. homonyms$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$B. polysemy C. hyponyms$$$$$$$$$$D. synonyms$ 12. A sentence is considered ____ when it does not conform to the grammatical knowledge in themind of native speakers. A. right$$$$$$$$$$$$$ B. wrong C. grammatical$$$$$$$D. ungrammatical 13. “-s” in the word “books” is$ _______. A. a derivative affix$$$$$$$$B. a stem C. an inflectional affix$$$$$$$$$ D. a root14. Language is said to be arbitrary because there is no logical connection between _________and meanings.A. sense$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ B. sounds C. objects$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ D. ideas15. The word “lab” is formed through ($ $ $ ). A. back formation$$$$$$$ $B. blending C. clipping$$$$$$$$$ $$$D. derivationII. Blank Filling (10X2)1. A coordinate$$sentence contains two clauses joined by a linking word, such as "and", "but", "or".2. A regional dialect may gain status and become standardized as the national or official languageof a country.3. The conceptualist view holds that there is no direct link between a linguistic form and what itrefers to.4. A simple sentence consists of a single clause which contains a subject and a predicate andstands alone as its own sentence.5. Of all the speech organs, the tongue is the most flexible, and is responsible for varieties ofarticulation than any other.$6. The first language acquisition refers to the development of a first or native language.7. In the course of time,$the study of language has come to establish close links with otherbranches of social studies, such as sociology and psychology.8. A noun phrase must contain a noun, but other elements are optional9. The affix “-ish” in the word boyish conveys a grammatical meaning.10. The articulatory apparatus of a human being are contained in three important cavities: thepharyngeal cavity, the oral cavity and the nasal cavityIII.True of False (10X1)1. ($ $ ) The conceptualist view of meaning holds that there is no direct link between a symbol andreference, i.e. between language and thought. F2. ($ $ ) In classifying the English consonants and vowels, the same criteria can be applied. F3. ($ $ $ ) Language reflects sexism in society. Language itself is not sexist, just as it is not
obscene; but it can connote sexist attitudes as well as attitudes about social taboos or racism. T4. ( ) Sense is concerned with the relationship between the linguistic element and the non-linguistic world of experience, while the reference deals with the inherent meaning of thelinguistic form. F5. ( ) Words are the smallest meaningful units of language. F6. ($ $ $ ) The division of English$ into Old English, Middle English, and Modern English isnonconventional and not arbitrary. F7. ( ) Linguistics studies particular language, not languages in general. F8. ( ) Sentences are composed of sequence of words arranged in a simple linear order, with oneadding onto another following a simple arithmetic logic. F9. ( ) The meaning of a sentence is the sum total of the meanings of all its components.$$F10. ($ $ $ ) If a child is deprived of linguistic environment, he or she is unlikely to learn a languagesuccessfully later on. TIV. Define the following terms (5X3)1. Compounding: Compounding can be viewed as the combination of two or sometimes more thantwo words to create new words2. pragmatics: Pragmatics can be defined as the study of how speakers of a language use sentencesto effect successful communication3. sociolinguistics: Sociolinguistics is the study of language in social contexts4. phonology: Phonology studies the system of sounds of a particular language; it aims to discoverhow speech sounds in a language form patterns and how these sounds are used to conveymeaning in linguistic communication5. Bilingualism: Bilingualism refers to a linguistic situation in which two standard languages areused either by an individual or by a group of speakers, such as the inhabitants of a particularregion or a nationV.Answer questions （2X7.5）1. What is context ?Generally speaking, it consists of the knowledge that is shared by the speaker and the hearer.The shared knowledge is of two types: the knowledge of the language they use, and theknowledge about the world, including the general knowledge about the world and the specificknowledge about the situation in which linguistic communication is taking place.2. What are the basic components of a sentence? Normally, a sentence consists of at least a subject and its predicate which contains a finite verbor a verb phrase.VI. Analyze (2X7.5)1. What are the violations of maxims? Try to illustrate with the following example. “He is made of iron.”“The reference letter by the professor” “She is Childish”. “--Let’s get the kids something. --- Okay, but I veto I-C-E C-R-E-A-M-S”
Violation of quality--- He is made of iron.Violation of quantity---the reference letter by the professorViolation of relations ---She is Childish. Violation of manners--Let’s get the kids something. --- Okay, but I veto I-C-E C-R-E-A-M-S2. Look at the pictures given below and try to illustrate the criteria that a linguist uses inclassifying vowels. 1)$$Vowels may be distinguished as front, central and back in terms of the position of the tongue inthe mouth.2)$According to how wide our mouth is opened, we classify the vowels into four groups: closevowels, semi-close vowels, semi-open vowels, and open vowels.3) According to the shape of the lips, vowels are divided into rounded vowels and unroundedvowels.4)$The English vowels can also be classified into long vowels and short vowels according to thelength of the sound.