宾语从句的用法(基础讲解)

发布时间:2024-05-30 00:05:04浏览次数:4
宾语从句的用法【真题再现】1. — Could you tell me _________? 【2012 广东】— Certainly. In half an hour.A. when will the high speed train arrive B. when the high speed train will arrive C. when would the high speed train arrive D. when the high speed train would arrive2. —Excuse me, could you tell me ______ to get to the post office? 【2012 广西玉林】—Certainly. The No. 15 bus. A. which bus I should take B. I should take which bus C. should I take which bus D. which bus should I take 3.I think _____ not difficult _____ English every morning.【2012 贵州安顺】A. that; keep reading B.it’s; keep readingC. that; to keep reading D.it; to keep reading4. Do you know _________ Zunyi or not tomorrow? 【2012 黔西南】A. whether are they leaving for B. whether they are leaving forC. if they are leaving for D. if are they leaving for5. The policewoman asked the little boy ______. 【2012 贵州安顺】A.where did he live B.where he livedC.where he lives D.where does he lives6. — Show me the map, please. I wonder ____________.【2012 福建福州】— Look, it's here, in the east of China, near Taiwan Province.A. where is Diaoyu Island B. where Diaoyu Island is C. what is Diaoyu Island like7. — Could you tell me_____ he came here? 【2012 安徽省】—He drove here himself.A. how B. why C. when D. whether8. —Can you tell me ____ the prize, Tom? 【2012 北京】—Last year.A. when you got B. when did you getC. when will you get D. when you will get【答案与解析】1. B。由 when 引导的宾语从句,要用陈述语序,所以排除 A 和 C,主句时态是表示委婉语气的一般现在时,根据句意,选择 B。2. A。考查特殊疑问词引导的宾语从句,要用陈述语序,根据句意,选择 A。3. D。这里的 it 作形式宾语,动词不定式 to keep reading English 作真正的宾语。4. B。宾语从句要用陈述句语序,所以排除 A、D 选项;if 不能与 or not 连用故选 B 答案。5. B。考查 where 引导的宾语从句,用陈述句语序,由 asked 可知从句用相应的过去时,所以选B。6. B。考查 where 引导的宾语从句,要用陈述语序。根据句意可知选 B。7. A。由答语可知,问他来这的方式,所以引导词选 how。8. A。由答语 last year 可知问获奖的时间,when 引导的宾语从句要用陈述语序,所以选 A。【用法讲解】考试要求:宾语从句在中考中是重点考查内容,主要考查知识包括宾语从句的引导词、宾语从句的语序及宾语 从句时态对应及否定迁移等。1. 宾语从句的引导词在复合句子中,作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。例如:I want to know whose book this is.我想知道这是谁的书。宾语从句的引导词有三种:1)that;2)whether/ if;3)特殊疑问词 what/ when/ where/ who等。例如:He said that he could help me. 他说他能够帮助我。Your mother asked if you could finish your work this week. 你妈妈问这个星期你能否完成工作。Can you tell me when the sports meeting will begin?你能告诉我运动会将在什么时候开始吗?(1) 以 that 引导的宾语从句:that 引导的宾语从句一般都是由陈述句充当,引导词 that 没有实际意义,不在从句中作任何成分,that 可以省略,而且从句成分齐全,句意完整。Do you think (that) it will rain? 你认为天会下雨吗?He said (that) he could come on time. 他说他会准时来的。(2) 以 whether 或 if 引导的宾语从句:从属连词 if, whether 引导的名词从句是由一般疑问句或选择疑问句转化而来的,变成从句后,语序由原来的倒装语序变成陈述语序。whether 和 if 意为“是否”。Let us know whether / if you can finish the work before Friday. 请让我们知道你是否能在星期五以前把工作做完。I don’t care whether you like the story or not. 我不在乎你是否喜欢这个故事。注意:以下情况一般只用 whether 不用 if。1) 接带 to 的动词不定式。She doesn’t know whether to go to the zoo. 她不知道是不是去动物园。2)与 or not 连用时。I’m not sure whether or not he will come on time. 他能否准时来,我说不准。(3) 特殊疑问词 what/ when/ where/ who 等引导的宾语从句:此类宾语从句原来是特殊疑问句,变成宾语从句后要用陈述语序,由 wh-开头的疑问词引导。包括who, whom, whose, what, which 等连接代词和 where, when, how, why 等连接副词,这些引导词有各自的意思,在从句中要作相应的成分,不能省略。例如:Could you tell me which gate we have to go to? 请问我们得走哪个门?He didn’t tell me how long he would stay here. 他没有告诉我他要在这里呆多长时间。2. 宾语从句的语序由 whether/ if 和特殊疑问词引导的宾语从句要用陈述语序,原来的倒装语序改成陈述语序时注意相应的助动词和动词的变化等。Where does your father work? Can you tell us? →Can you tell us where your father works? 你能告诉我们你爸爸在哪里工作吗?Did you get home very late? He asked me. → He asked me if I got home very late. 他问我是否到家很晚。3. 宾语从句的时态对应 (1) 如果主句是一般现在时,宾语从句根据实际情况用各种时态。例如:My teacher says he will be back in a week. (一般将来时)我的老师说他将在一个星期后回来。My teacher says he is watching TV. (现在进行时)我的老师说他正在看电视。My teacher says he has seen the movie. (现在完成时)我的老师说他已经看过这部电影了。(2)如果主句是一般过去时,宾语从句用相应的过去时态。例如:My father said he was watching TV at that time.(过去进行时)我爸爸说在那个时候他在看电视。My father said the he had already seen the movie. (过去完成时)我爸爸说他已经看过那部电影了。注意:如果宾语从句是表示客观真理和规律的句子时,用一般现在时。例如:Our teacher told us the sun is much bigger than the earth. (一般现在时)我们的老师告诉我们太阳比地球大多了。4. 宾语从句的否定转移主句如果是 I think/ believe/ imagine/ suppose/ guess/ expect 等,从句的否定一般要转移到主句中,其反意疑问句与从句一致。例如:I don’t think they’ll wait to the last minute,will they? 我认为他们不会等到最后一分钟,他们会吗?I don’t believe he did this, did he? 我相信他不会做这样的事,他会吗?
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