福师《大学英语(2)》第五课拓图表式作文

发布时间:2024-05-11 09:05:03浏览次数:8
福师《大学英语(2)》第五课拓图表式作文Diagram Report   图表式作文要求根据所给的图表、数据及标题进行分析、研究,阅读其中的文字和说明,弄清各种信息之间的关系,提炼和确定文章的中心思想,然后进行分析、概括和归纳,并得出令人信服的结论。图表式作文多以说明文为主。   1.图表式作文的常见形式  (1)表格(table):以表格的形式将统计的数据或被说明的事物直接地体现出来,即统计表。   (2)图形表:包括曲线图(line graph)、饼状图(pie chart)和条形图(bar chart)。  曲线图是以曲线形式表示数据变化;条形图也叫做柱状图,是以条形方式表示数据的大小或数量之间的差异;饼状图也叫做圆形图,是以圆内扇形的大小表示内部总体结构的变化。   2.图表式作文的写作步骤    (1)开门见山地点明图表所反映的主题。   经常使用的词汇有:table,chart,figure,graph,describe,tell,show,represent 等。   (2)分析数据间的主要差异及趋势,然后描写。   在描写数据间变化及总趋势特征时,可采用分类式或对比式以支持主题,并阐明必要的理由,但要注意层次清楚。经常使用的词汇有:rise,drop,reduce,increase,decrease,fall,while,but,on the contrary,however,compare ...to/with ...,in contrast to,as ... as,the same as,similar to,different from,difference between,among,more than,lessthan 等。   (3)归纳总结或发表评论。(有时这一步可省略。)  经常使用的词汇有: in a word,in short,generally speaking ,It’s clear from the chart that ... ,We can draw theconclusion that ...,We can learn/know ... 等。   3.图表式作文的写作要点    (1)仔细研究题目及提示信息,认清图表中的数字、线条、阴影等部分的变化趋势和走向,抓住其主要特点,然后根据图表所显示的中心信息确定内容层次及主题句。   (2)仔细研究图表所给出的大量信息,从中选取最重要、最有代表性的信息,然后根据全文的主旨去组织运用所获取的关键信息。切忌简单地罗列图表所给出的信息。   (3)图表作文一般采用的时态为一般现在时,但如果图表中给出了具体的时间供参照,则应对时态进行相应的调整。   (4)了解不同图表在写作方面的不同特点。   ① 表格可以表示多种事物的相互关系,所以要对表格中所给出的大量数字进行比较分析,从中找出其变化规律 。   ② 曲线图常表示事物的变化趋势,所以应认真观察坐标系所显示的数据信息,并且密切注意交汇在坐标横轴和纵轴上的数字及单位。   ③ 条形图用来表示各种事物的变化情况及相互关系,所以要通过宽度相等的条形的高度或长度差别来判断事物的动态发展趋势,同时要密切关注坐标线上的刻度单位及图表旁边的提示说明与文字。   ④ 饼状图表示各事物在总体中所占的比例及相互关系,要求准确理解并阐述一个被分割成大小不等切片的饼状图所传达的信息,所以应清楚掌握部分与整体、部分与部分之间的相互关系。这种关系通常是以百分比的形式给出的。   (5)列出各段主题句。在写作时可以根据所给提纲或已知信息列出每段的主题句,为全文的展开做好铺垫。然后围绕主题句完成段落的展开,尽量做到主题明确、条理清楚、文字简练。   (6)检查与修改。对图表作文的检查与修改应着重看文章中所列举的信息是否与图表所显示的信息一致,资料是否恰当。   4.图表式作文常用的句型  As can be seen from/in the chart/diagram/table/graph ... 从表格或图形中我们可以看到……   The table shows a three times increase over that of last year. 表格显示比去年上升了 3 倍。   According to/As is shown in Table/Figure/Chart ... 如表格或图表中显示……   The number is 5 times as much as that of ... 此数字是……的 5 倍。   It has increased by three times as compared with that of ... 同……相比,增长了 3 倍。   It can be seen from the chart/diagram/table/graph/figures/statistics that ...  从表格/图表/数据中我们可以看到……   From the table/figures/data/results/information above, it can/may be seen/concluded/shown/estimated/calculated/ inferredthat ...  从以上的表格/图表/数据/结果/信息中,我们可以看到/总结/预测/计算/得出……   A has the highest sales figure in the three departments, followed by B and C.  在 3 个部门中,A 的销售额最高,其次是 B 和 C。   The figure of A is about twice as much as that of B.   A 的数字是 B 的两倍。   The rise lasted for two weeks and then began to level off in August.  上升两个星期后,8 月份开始平稳。   It accounts for 30% of the total population.  它占到总人口的 30%。   The number of students has reached 500, indicating a rise of 20%, compared with last semester.  学生人数达到 500 人, 与上个学期相比上升了 20%。   It picked up speed at the end of this month.  这个月底加快了速度。   The pie charts show the changes on...in some place in 2000.  此饼状图显示了 2000 年一些地方……的变化。   From this year on, there was a gradual declined reduction in the ..., reaching a figure of ...  从这年起,……逐渐下降至……   There are a lot of similarities/differences between ... and ...  ……与……之间有许多相似(不同)之处。   It can be drawn from the chart that the proportions of A and B are going down, though the falling level of the latter is a lotlower/higher than that of the former.  尽管 B 的下降速度比 A 要慢/快,从表中我们可以看到 A 和 B 的比例都在下降。   The increase/decrease is more noticeable during the second half of the 5-year period.  在 5 年期限的后半段,增长/降低比较明显。   It falls from 50% in 2000 to 30% in 2004,and then the trend reverse, finishing at 58% in 2005.  从 2000 年的 50%降到 2004 年的 30%,然后形势逆转,2005 年达到了 58%。   The table shows the changes in the number of ... over the period from ... to ...  该表格描述了在……年至……年间……数量的变化。   As can be seen from the graph, the two curves show the fluctuation of ...  如图所示,两条曲线描述了……的波动情况。 Sample 1The table shows the results of a survey in 2004 which asked undergraduate and postgraduate students of a UKuniversity whether they were satisfied with the facilities at the university. Write a report describing the informationshown below.Area Students Very satisfied Quite satisfied Not at all satisfiedStudy facilities Postgraduate students 65% 20% 15%Undergraduate students 67% 17% 16%University cafeteria Postgraduate students 52% 32% 16%Undergraduate students 70% 27% 3%Social facilitiesPostgraduate students 80% 15% 5%Undergraduate students 45% 25% 30% From the table, we can see different attitudes among undergraduate and postgraduate students towards the facilities of aUK college in 2004.  When being asked about the satisfaction of study facilities, two groups of students two groups of students (both graduateand undergraduate) (both graduate and undergraduate) seemed to have the same opinion. About 85% of both students expressedtheir satisfaction, and only around 15% of the students do not feel satisfied at all.    However, when it came to questions about the school cafeteria and social facilities, post graduate students andundergraduates tend to hold different ideas. The majority of university undergraduates (97%) liked the college canteen, whileonly 84% of postgraduates feel the same way. About 16% of postgraduates, 13% higher than their university counterparts,showed their reluctance. On the contrary, undergraduates appeared to have more complaints on social facilities, with 30%students announcing their dissatisfaction, while the proportion of criticism within postgraduate students is only 5%.Overall speaking, most of the UK college students had a high comment on the campus appliance, yet undergraduatestended to be relatively harsher than postgraduate students.Sample 2 The graph below shows the unemployment rates in the US and Japan between March 1993 and March 1999. Write areport describing the information shown below. The graph here compares the unemployment rates in the US and in Japan over the past 6 years from March 1993 to March1999.   As we can see from the graph, during this period of time, the unemployment rate in US gradually declined, whereas that inJapan rose steadily.   As for Japan, there was obviously a dramatic increase with the unemployment rate between 1993 and 1994, rising fromabout 2.5% to 3.75%. Then, there was a slight fluctuation in the following year of 1994. From March 1995 to the middle of1998, there was a stable growth accompanied by occasional fluctuations. Particularly in 1998, it peaked at about 5.3% andafterwards began to drop slowly before finally ending up at 5%.  On the other hand, the unemployment rate in US was totally different from that in Japan. As is shown from the graph, USunemployment rate fell from the original 7.0% to the final 5.1%. The lowest rate, which appeared in 1998, reached about 4.7%,which is almost equal to the highest rate in Japan. From the graph, we have learned about some information about theunemployment rates in the US and Japan between 1993 and 1999.
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