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吉大《大学英语(一)》第六课按空间顺序法展开描述的短文 描述空间的小短文指按物体的空间位置(自左至右、由近到远、由上至下、由下到上 、由里到外、由外到里、由中间到两边等顺序)来展开段落。例如: My BedroomI have a bedroom of my own. It is not very big, but it looks beautiful and is comfortable. Thewindow is opposite the door. The door's color is like wood. Near the door, there is a big whitedesk. A blue lamp is on the desk. My bed is behind the desk. It is so lovely. There is a clothescloset on the right of the bed. A pink teddy bear is on it. You can see the curtain in my bedroom.There're some pretty flowers on it. That's my bedroom. Do you like it? 这个段落以空间顺序法描写了一个房间。先从描述窗子开始,接着是门、桌子、床铺和衣柜等,体现了一定的层次性和空间感。 再来看以下一篇描述大不列颠的地理位置的短文。 Great BritainGreat Britain is an island that lies off the northwest coast of Europe. The nearest country isFrance which is 20 miles away, from which Great Britain is separated by the English Channel(英吉列海峡). The island is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean(大西洋) to the west, and theNorth Sea to the east. It comprises(包含) the mainland of England, Wales(威尔士) andScotland(苏格兰). Scotland is in the North, while Wales is in the west. Ireland( 爱尔兰),which is also an island, lies off the west coast of Great Britain. It consists of Northern Ireland(北爱尔兰)and the Irish Republic(爱尔兰共和国). Great Britain together with Northern Irelandconstitutes the United Kingdom(大不列颠联合王国). Thus, the United Kingdom is composedof four parts. The largest of these is England which is divided into 43 administrative (行政的)counties(县,郡). The capital city is London which is situated(坐落) in southeastEngland. 这个段落主要是采用由外到里的空间顺序法来进行描写的。先从外围描述大不列颠的地理位置,接着从内部仔细介绍它的各个组成部分英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士的相对位置,同时描述了爱尔兰岛的相对位置,最后作者又特意指出英国首府伦敦的地理位置 描述空间段落写作提示如下: (1)构成空间关系的过渡词有 before, behind, below, between, beyond, farther, in front of ,near to, next to, over, under, up, close to 等。 (2)空间顺序法常用的过渡词有 beyond, above, under, nearby, outside, in here, across,close to, on(to)the left(right), ahead of, in front of, from, adjacent to, against, around, at thebottom, before, behind, below, beneath, between, close at hand, close to down, far, farther, inthe center of, in the distance, in the middle of, near to, next to, on the opposite side, opposite to,on top of, over, up 等。 吉大《大学英语(一)》第六课 FAQ动名词Gerund 动名词由动词+ing 构成,否定形式为 not doing,具有动词和名词的性质,在句中起名 1 / 4 词作用,可作主语、宾语、表语和定语。 1. 动名词的作用 (1)作主语。例如: Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。 Laying eggs is the ant queen's full-time job. 产卵就是蚁后的全部工作。 It is no use arguing with him. 和他争论没有用。 【注意】:动名词和不定式都可以作主语,动名词作主语表示一般或抽象的多次的行为,不定式作主语往往表示具体的或一次性的动作。例如: Playing with fire is dangerous. (泛指玩火)玩火是危险的。 To play with fire will be dangerous. (指一个具体动作)玩火是危险的。 但在 It is no use/good, not any use/good, useless 等后常用动名词,间或用不定式。 (2)作表语。例如: Her job is teaching. 她的工作是教书。 (3)作宾语。例如: He is fond of playing football. 他喜欢踢足球。 I like swimming. 我喜欢游泳。具体用法如下: ① 在 admit, appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, face, feel, finish,forgive, give up, imagine, include, keep, mention, mind, miss, practise, put off, resist, risk,suggest, can't help(情不自禁), can't stand(无法忍受)等动词或词组后可以用动名词作宾语,但不能用不定式。 forget, go on, mean, regret, remember, stop, try② 等动词或词组可带动名词或不定式作宾语,但意义上有区别。例如: Let's go on studying Lesson 6. 让我们继续学第 6 课。(说明前面已学了一部分) Let's go on to study Lesson 6. 让我们接着学第 6 课。(说明前面已学了第 5 课) I remember doing the exercise. 我记得做过练习了。 I must remember to do it. 我必须记着做这事。 I tried not to go there. 我设法不去那里。 I tried doing it again. 我试着又干了一次。 Stop speaking. 不要讲话。 He stopped to talk. 他停下来讲话。 I mean to come early today. 我打算今天早些来。 Missing the train means waiting for another hour. 误了这趟火车意味着要再等一个小时。 ③ 在 allow, advise, forbid, permit 等动词后直接跟动名词作宾语。如果后面有名词或代词作宾语,其后用动词不定式作宾语补足语。例如: We don't allow smoking here. 我们不允许在这里吸烟。 2 / 4 We don't allow students to smoke. 我们不许学生抽烟。 ④ 动词 need, require, want 作“需要”解,其后必须用动名词的主动形式或不定式的被动形式作宾语表示事情需要做,这时动名词的主动式表示被动意义。 be worth 后必须用动名词的主动形式来表示被动意义。例如: The window needs/requires/wants cleaning/to be cleaned. 窗户需要擦了。 Her method is worth trying. 她的方法值得尝试。 ⑤ 在短语 devote to, look forward to, stick to, to be used to, object to, thank you for, excuseme for, be(kept) busy, have difficulty/trouble/problem(in), have a good/wonderful/hardtime(in), there's no use/good/need, feel/seem like/get down to 等后的动词也必须用动名词形式。例如: I look forward to hearing from you soon. 我希望很快收到你的来信。 ⑥ 在 love, hate, prefer, like 等动词后用动名词或不定式无多大区别。有时,用动名词作宾语时指一般情况,而跟不定式作宾语时则指某一具体行为。 I like to swim this afternoon. 我想今天下午去游泳。 I like swimming in the sea. 我喜欢在海里游泳。 I hate to say so, but really I can't go. 我不喜欢这样说,但我真的不能去。 I hate speaking before a big audience. 我不喜欢在这么多观众面前讲话。 start, begin, continue⑦ 在书面语中多后接动名词,在口语中多后接不定式。但 start 和begin 在下列情况下一般跟不定式作宾语:当主语是物而不是人时;当 start 或 begin 以-ing 形式出现时;当后面作宾语的动词表示感情、思想或意念时。例如: It started to snow. 开始下雨了。 He is beginning to cook dinner. 他刚开始做饭。 I began to understand what he meant. 我开始明白他的意思了。 ⑧ 在 should(would) like/love 等后须用不定式。 (4)作定语。例如: He has a reading room. 他有一个阅览室。 2. 动名词的复合结构 动名词的复合结构由物主代词或人称代词宾格、名词所有格或普通格加动名词构成。在句子开头必须用名词所有格或物主代词。如果动名词的复合结构作宾语,其逻辑主语是无生命的名词时,用普通格。例如:His coming made me very happy. 他的到来使我很高兴。 Mary's crying annoyed him. 玛丽的哭声使他很烦。 She didn't mind his crying. 她不介意他哭。 Is there any hope of Xiao Wang's winning? 小王有获胜的希望吗? He insists on the plan being carried out. 他执意要执行这个计划。 3. 动名词的时态和语态 3 / 4 动名词的时态分为一般式和完成式两种。如果动名词的动作没有明确地表示出时间是与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生或在谓语动词所表示的动作以前发生,用动名词的一般式。例如:We are interested in playing chess. 我们对下象棋感兴趣。 His coming will be of great help to us. 他的到来对我们是很大的帮助。 如果动名词的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,通常用动名词的完成时态。例如: I'm sorry for not having kept my promise. 很抱歉,我没有实现诺言。 在某些动词或词组后,常用动名词的一般形式,尽管其动作是在谓语所表示的动作之前发生的。例如: Excuse me for coming late. 请原谅,我迟到了。 主语是动名词所表示的动作的对象时,动名词用被动语态。被动语态由“being+过去分词”或“having been+过去分词”构成。后一种一般很少使用,以免使句子显得累赘。例如: He likes being helped. 他喜欢得到人们的帮助。 He was afraid of being left at home. 他害怕一个人呆在家里。 I don't remember having ever been given a chance to do it. 我不记得有人给我机会做这件事。 4 / 4
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