吉大《大学英语(一)》第三课复合句

发布时间:2024-03-04 10:03:54浏览次数:6
吉大《大学英语(一)》第三课复合句Complex Sentence 由一个独立的句子和一个或一个以上非独立的句子组成的句子称为复合句。主句是句子的主体部分,从句只作句子的一个从属部分,不能独立成句。复合句常由连词将从句和主句联系在一起。从句在主句中作什么成分就叫什么从句,例如从句作宾语就叫宾语从句。从句包括主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句、定语从句和状语从句。 1. 主语从句 主语从句在复合句中作主语,它的作用相当于名词。引导主语从句的词有连词 that, whether;连接代词 who, what, which; 连接副词 when, where, how, why 等。例如: That I was right is clear. 我是对的,这很清楚。 Whether he'll come or not has not been decided yet. 他是否来还没有决定。 Who is coming to the party is unknown. 谁来参加聚会,还不知道。 What he said is not true. 他所说的不是真的。 Which team has won the game is not known. 哪个队赢了比赛,还不知道。 When we will have the discussion depends on the teacher. 我们什么时候讨论将取决于老师。 Where we will meet will be decided by you. 我们什么时候见面将由你来决定。 How she got the prize is still a secret. 她怎样得到的那个奖还仍然是个秘密。 Why Tom was late remains a puzzle. 汤姆为什么迟到还是个谜。 2. 表语从句 表语从句在复合句中作表语,它的作用相当于名词。引导表语从句的词有连词 that, whether, as if; 连接代词 who, what, which; 连接副词 when, where, how, why 等。例如: The fact is that we're behind the others. 事实是我们已经落后于别人。 The question is whether it is worth reading. 问题是它是否值得一读。 He looks as if he knew nothing about it. 他看起来好像对这件事一无所知。 The problem is who'll be in charge of the class. 问题是谁来负责这个班。 That's what we want to do. 这正是我们想做的。 The question is which team will play in the game. 问题是哪个队将参加这场比赛。 That was when he joined the army. 那是他参军的时候。 That was where I first met him. 那是我第一次见到他的地方。 That was how she finished her education. 那就是她怎样完成学业的。 This is why Tom cried. 这就是汤姆为什么哭的原因。 3. 宾语从句宾语从句在复合句中作及物动词或介词的宾语,常由下列一些连词引导。 由连词 that 引导。that 在从句中不充当任何句子成分,只起连接主句和从句的作用,在口语和非正式文体中可省略。例如: She said (that) she would return the book soon. 她说她很快就会还书。 He said (that) he would come here and (that) I should wait for him. 他说他会来这儿,并让我等他。 由连词 whether 或 if 引导。whether 或 if 在从句中不充当任何句子成分,只是起连接作用,但不能省略。它们的意思都是“是否”,在把句子翻译成汉语时需要译出来。例如: I wonder whether/if he'll agree with me. 我不知道他是否同意我的意见。 I don't know whether/if he will come back this evening. 我不知道他今晚是否会来。 由连接代词 who, whom, whose, which, what 或连接副词 when, where, how, why 引导。连接代词或连接副词位于从句的前面,起连接主句和从句的作用。从句用陈述句语序。它们在从句中充当一个成分,并保留原有的疑问含义,把句子译成汉语时需要译出。例如: I can guess who/whom you have talked with. 我可以猜出谁和你谈话了。 I know whose brother he is. 我知道他是谁的兄弟。 Do you know which team lost in the game? 你知道哪个队在比赛中输了吗? Tell me what you have done. 告诉我你干了什么。 We have to decide when we'll set off. 我们必须决定什么时候动身。 He wants to know where we'll spend the holiday. 他想知道我们在哪儿度假。 I wonder how he got so much money. 我想知道他是怎么搞到那么多钱的。 I can not understand why he said that again. 我不明白他为什么又说那个了。 4. 定语从句 在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫作定语从句。定语从句需要放在所修饰词(先行词)的后面。引导定语从句的连词有关系代词 who, whom, whose, which, that 和关系副词 when, where, why 等。例如: Do you know the man who is singing now? 你认识那个正在唱歌的人吗? He is the man (whom/that) the teacher blamed. 他就是那个被老师责备的人。 I live in the room whose window faces south. 我住在窗户朝南的房间。 The school which is famous here has a long history. 这里有名的那所学校历史悠久。 The table that stands in the corner is made of glass. 那个立在角落的桌子是玻璃制成的。 All that they had taken with them was one bottle of water. 他们带的所有东西只是一瓶水。 I still remember the day when I first came here. 我还记得我到这里的第一天。 This is the bridge where you took photos. 这是你照相的那座桥。 This is the reason why he failed the test. 这是他没通过考试的原因。 This is the room in which he once lived. 这是他曾经住过的房间。 The day on which one is born is one's birthday. 某人出生的那一天是他的生日。 Last night I saw a very good film, which was about a superman. 昨晚我看了一部很好的电影,是有关超人的。 The river is wide, which a new bridge has been built over. 这条河很宽,在上面又建了一座新桥。 【注意】:后两句为非限制性定语从句,是先行词的附加说明,如果省去,也不影响主句的意思,它和主句之间用逗号分开,并且不能用 that 作连接词。 5. 同位语从句 同位语从句一般是跟在某些抽象名词(如 news, fact, belief, idea, suggestion, advice 等)后面的由连词that 引导的从句。与定语从句不同的是:同位语从句只是进一步阐述或说明所修饰的词的详细内容,并 且只能用 that 作连接词。例如: Everyone knows the fact that it is colder in winter than in summer here. 每个人都知道这个事实:这里的冬天比夏天冷。 His suggestion that we hold the meeting next week cannot be accepted. 他有关下周开会的建议不能被接受 6. 状语从句复合句中起状语作用的从句叫作状语从句。状语从句可以用来表示时间、地点、原因、结果、目的、条件、比较、方式、让步等。 时间状语从句常用 when, as, while, after, before, as soon as, until 等连词引导。例如: I was reading the newspaper when he called. 他打电话时,我正在看报。 As they walked along, they sang happily. 他们边走边高兴地唱着。 While mother was cooking, he was doing his homework. 妈妈做饭时,他正在做作业。 After he left home, he went to the bookstore. 离家以后,他去了书店。 Think twice before you act. 三思而后行。 As soon as he came back, he began to watch TV. 他一回来,就开始看电视。 I'll wait until you have done it. 我将等到你做完那件事。 地点状语从句常由连词 where, wherever 引导。例如: We will go where we want to go most. 我们将去我们最想去的地方。 Wherever you are, you should not break the law. 无论你在哪儿,你都不能违法。 原因状语从句常由连词 because, since, as 引导。例如: I was late because I missed the school bus. 我迟到了,因为我错过了校车。 Since you are unable to answer, we should ask someone else. 既然你不能回答,我们就应该问别人。 As you are tired, you may have a rest. 既然你累了,可以休息一会儿。 条件状语从句常由 if, unless 等连词引导。例如: I'll be very happy if you come to the party. 如果你来参加聚会,我将很高兴。 You won't succeed unless you work hard. 除非你努力,否则你不会成功。 目的状语从句常由 so that, in order to 等连词引导。例如: He got up early so that he might catch the bus. 他早早起床,以便赶上车。 She did the exercise carefully in order that she wouldn't make any mistake. 她认真地做练习,为的是不出错。 结果状语从句常由 so that, so…that…, such … that…等连词引导。so 后面接形容词或副词,such 后面接名词。例如: He had forgotten to post the letter so that he had to go out again. 他忘了寄信,所以他不得不再出去一次。 She was so sleepy that she could hardly keep her eyes open. 她太困了,以至于几乎睁不开眼睛。 It was such a fine day that we all went out to play. 那天天气真好,我们都出去玩了。 比较状语从句常由 than, as…as, not as…as 等连词引导。例如: Peter runs faster than Tom. 彼特比汤姆跑得快。 I can jump as far as you do. 我能跳得和你一样高。 方式状语从句常由 as, as if/though 等连词引导。例如: You must do as the teacher requires. 你必须按老师要求的去做。 He spoke as if/though he knew what had happened to his wife. 他讲话时似乎已经知道他的妻子发生了什么事。 让步状语从句常由 though/although, even if/though 等连词引导。例如: Although he is young, he knows more than others. 虽然他年轻,但是他比别人懂得多。 We'll try our best even if/though we may fail. 虽然我们可能会失败,但我们将尽最大的努力。
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