《大学英语(2)》第二章状语从句

发布时间:2024-02-22 13:02:56浏览次数:11
第二单元 FAQ状语从句Adverbial Clause状语从句(又称副词从句)在句子中起状语作用,修饰主句的动词、形容词、副词或整句。状语从句由从属连词引导,位置灵活,可以放置句首(从句后需要用逗号与主句隔开)、句中(从句前后都用逗号)或者句尾(从句前不需要用逗号)。状语从句可以分为以下几种类型。1. 时间状语从句时 间 状 语 从 句 可 以 由 下 列 连 词 引 导 :when , whenever , while , as , before , after , since , now that , until , once , themoment,immediately,no sooner...than,the second,instantly, hardly 等。例如:When my father came home yesterday, I was watching NBA games. 当父亲回家的时候,我在看 NBA 球赛。When I was ten, I began to learn to play basketball. 我十岁的时候开始学习打篮球。While he is listening to a song, he always sings along. 当他听歌的时候,他总是会随着一起唱。You will grow taller as you grow older. 随着你长大,你也会长高。以上 4 个句子中的状语从句均表示某一时刻或者某时间段。注意:(1)当使用连接词 when 表示“……时候”时,它所引导的从句中谓语动词用一般现在时或者一般过去时,不能用完成时态。(2)when,while 和 as 都引导表示时间的状语从句,它们的区别在于动作发生的时间顺序。用 when 时,从句的动作可以与主句的动作同时发生或先于主句的动作发生;用 as 时从句和主句的动作同时发生;用 while 时从句和主句的动作同时发生,也可表示持续一段时间。例如:I didn't know my step-father before I was brought to this family. 在我被带到这个家庭之前,我不认识继父。After he said goodbye, he left. 他说完再见后离开了。After you consult with your colleagues, please let me know your decision. 你和你同事商量完以后,请告诉我你们的决定。以上 3 个句子中的状语从句表示发生的动作在时间上的相对顺序。Whenever they are free, they play basketball. 他们一有时间就打篮球。Her mother gets angry every time that she arrives late. 每次她一来迟,她母亲就会生气。They laughed at each other as often as they met. 他们每次见面都会互相嘲笑一番。以上 3 个句子中的状语从句表示动作发生的频繁程度。I'll tell him the story as soon as I see him. 我一见到他就会告诉他这个故事。The instant the boy saw his mother, he threw himself into her arms. 这个小男孩一见到他的母亲就扑进她的怀里。No sooner had he entered the stadium than he started to played basketball. 他一进入体育场就开始打篮球。Hardly had he finished the examination when the bell rang. 他刚做完试卷就响铃了。以上 4 个句子中的状语从句表示动作发生的衔接程度,即“一……就……”,但某些连接词需要句子倒装。She didn't have her lunch until she had finished her task. 她一直到完成任务才吃午饭。 Until I met him, I had never known what love is. 我直到遇见他才知道什么是爱。Not until I shouted at the top of my voice did he turn his head. 直到我大声喊他,他才转过头来。以上 3 个句子中的状语从句表示动作“直到……才”发生。2. 地点状语从句地点状语从句通常由连词 where,wherever 或者副词 anywhere,everywhere 来引导。例如:Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者,事竟成。Wherever you are, you should work hard. 不管你在哪儿,都要努力工作。Readers should put the book they had finished where it was. 读者应该把看完的书放回原处。3. 原因状语从句原因状语从句通常由 because,since,as,seeing that,now that 等连词引导。例如:She didn't come to school because she was ill yesterday. 她没来上学是因为她昨天生病了。Since you are not busy today, you'd better help me with the garden work. 既然你今天不忙,那你最好帮我干花园里的活。As it is raining, you'd better take a taxi. 下雨了,你最好打出租车。Seeing (that) he was better, they didn't send for the doctor. 看到他好多了,他们就没有请医生来。Now that everybody is here, let's begin our meeting. 既然人都来了,那咱们开会吧。4. 结果状语从句结果状语从句通常由 so that,so ... that,that 等连接词引导。例如:The sound is so weak that you cannot hear it. 声音弱得你听不见。He bought a new car so that he was never late afterwards. 他买了一辆新车,从此以后就再也没迟到过。He is such a good person that everyone likes him. 他是一个好人,所以每个人都喜欢他。Is she really disabled that she should not touch it? 她真的残疾得不能动那东西了吗?5. 目的状语从句引导目的状语从句的连接词有:so,so that,in order that,for fear that,lest 等。例如:She worked hard so that she could earn the bonus. 她努力工作为的是能获得奖金。All the students studied hard lest they should fail the examinations this term. 所有的学生都努力学习,以防这学期考试过不了关。I came so early as to catch the first train. 我来得很早,以便能赶上头班火车。He is working hard for fear that he should fail. 他努力学习,以免考试不及格。6. 条件状语从句表示条件的状语从句可以由 if,unless,suppose,supposing,in case,so far as,provided 等词引导。(1) 真实条件状语从句所表示的条件是真实的、有可能实现的。常用的句型为:If+ 一般现在时,+一般将来时If+一般现在时,+一般现在时(2)非真实条件状语从句所表示的条件与事实相反,或没有实现的可能性。常用的句型为:If+动词过去式,+would(should, could, might)+动词原形If+had+过去分词,+would(should, could, might)+have+过去分词If it rains, the meeting will take place indoors. 如果下雨,会议将在室内进行。Suppose all your money was stolen, how would you survive in a strange city? 假设你的钱都被偷了,你如何在一个陌生的城市生存? If you had come a few minutes earlier, you would have met him. (非真实条件句) 如果你早来几分钟就碰到他了。If you had not helped me, I should have failed. (非真实条件句) 要是你不帮助我,我早就失败了。I shall give you my dictionary provided you return it tomorrow. 倘若你明天能还给我,我就把词典借给你。7. 让步状语从句让 步 状 语 从 句 由 下 列 连 接 词 引 导 : although , though , even if , while , no matter ,whoever,whatever,while,whether ... or,however,granting that 等。例如:Though it was very late, he went on working. 虽然很晚了,他还继续工作。Although he married a nice girl, he is (still, yet, nevertheless) unhappy. 尽管他和一位很好的姑娘结了婚,但他仍然不快乐。注意:在让步状语从句中,用 although 或者 though 引导时,句中不能再出现 but,可以用yet 或者 still 等。While he is very young, he is an old hand in this field. 虽然他非常年轻,但已经是这个领域里的老手了。Granted that they weren't doing it in the right way, you weren't right in taking everything onyourself. 就算他们做事的方式不对,你包办代替也不对。8. 方式状语从句方式状语从句的引导连接词有 as,as if,as though 等。例如:I have changed the plan as you instructed. 我已经按你的建议对计划做了修改。She walks as her mother does. 她像她妈妈那样走路。He works with great enthusiasm as though he never knew fatigue. 他工作热情很高,好像从不知道疲倦似的。9. 比较状语从句比较状语从句由 as ... as,not as ... as,than 等连接。例如:He worked as fast as a skilled worker. 他干活像一个熟练工人一样快。Marry works more carefully than Tom. 玛莉比汤姆工作更细心。
文档格式: docx,价格: 5下载文档
返回顶部