福师《大学英语(2)》名词性从句(一)

发布时间:2024-04-18 10:04:34浏览次数:12
福师《大学英语(2)》名词性从句(一)Nominal Clauses (Ⅰ) 从句法功能上划分,复合句可以分为名词性从句(即宾语从句、表语从句、主语从句、同位语从句和介词补足成分)、形容词性从句(即定语从句)和副词性分句(即状语从句)。 名词性从句能在句中起名词词组的作用,这种从句通常由从属连词 that 引导,也可由 who, whom,whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever 等连接代词引导,还可由 where, when, how, why等连接副词引导。 1. 名词性从句在句中作宾语 谓语动词、介词、动词不定式、分词、动名词之后都可以有宾语从句。某些形容词之后也可以带宾语从句。 1) 由 that 引导的宾语从句 She said (that) she would return the book soon. 她说她很快就会还书。 She said (that) she would come. 她说她要来。 We never doubt that he is honest. 我们从没有怀疑他的诚实。 She suggested that he do it at once. 她建议他马上做。 Hearing that his son was badly wounded, he hurried to the hospital to see him. 听说儿子受了重伤,他急忙赶到医院去看望他。 I am sure that she will like this book. 我确信她会喜欢这本书的。 We are glad that so many old friends will attend our tea party. 我们非常高兴这么多老朋友要来参加我们的茶话会。 I don't know anything about him except that he lives next door. 我只知道他住在隔壁。 2) 由 whether 或 if 引导的宾语从句 whether 可以连接所有的名词性从句,而 if 只能引导宾语从句或不在句首的主语从句;whether 可以作介词宾语,而 if 不能;whether 引导的名词性从句可以放在句首,而 if 引导的从句只能放在主句谓语动词之后;连接宾语从句时,whether 和 if 可以互换;whether 后可以接动词不定式, if 则不能。例如: Whether she comes or not makes no difference. 她来不来没有关系(不能用 if)。 I don't know whether to lend him the money. 我不知道是否该借钱给他。 I wonder whether/if he'll agree with me. 我不知道他是否会同意我的意见。 I want to know whether/if you can answer the question. 我不知道你能否回答这个问题。 I don't know whether/if he will come back this evening. 我不知道他今晚是否回来。 Do you know whether/if any decision has been arrived at? 你知道有任何决定下来了吗? 3) 由连接代词或连接副词引导的宾语从句 对于由连接代词或连接副词引导的宾语从句,要注意要使用陈述句的语序。例如: I can't imagine what made him act like that. 我不能想像是什么让他那样的。 Tell me what you have done. 告诉我你干了什么。 Can you tell us who is responsible for the fire? 你能告诉我们谁为这场火灾负责吗? I can guess who/whom you have talked with. 我可以猜出谁和你谈话了。 I know whose brother he is. 我知道他是谁的兄弟。 Please explain why this is impossible. 请解释为什么这个不可能。 I can not understand why he said that again. 我不明白他为什么又说那件事了。 Nobody can tell when she will arrive. 没人知道她什么时候会来。 We have to decide when we'll set off. 我们必须决定什么时候动身。 Do you know which team lost in the game? 你知道哪个队在比赛中输了吗? I haven't decided yet which would be the best thing to do. 我还没决定最好做什么。 Eat whichever one you like and leave the others for whoever comes in late. 吃任何一个你喜欢的,把其他的留给 后来的人。 He wants to know where we'll spend the holiday. 他想知道我们在哪儿度假。 She asked me where I was off to. 她问我要去哪里。 I wonder how he got so much money. 我想知道他是怎么搞到那么多钱的。 I wondered how he could make such rapid progress in his study of French. 我在想他怎样在法语学习中取得了这么大的进步。 2. 名词性从句在句中作表语 从句在句中作表语时,它位于主句中连系动词之后。需要注意的是,引导表语从句的从属连词 that 不能被省略。例如: The fact is that he didn't notice the car until too late. 事实是他没有来得及注意那辆车。 The question is why he likes the place so much. 问题是他为什么那么喜欢这个地方。 The problem is not who will go but who will stay. 问题不是谁会走而是谁会留。 The fact is that we're behind the others. 事实是我们已经落后于别人了。 The question is whether it is worth reading. 问题是它是否值得一读。 He looks as if he knew nothing about it. 他看起来好像对这件事一无所知。 The problem is who'll be in charge of the class. 问题是谁来负责这个班。 That's what we want to do. 这正是我们想做的。 The question is which team will play in the game. 问题是哪个队将参加这场比赛。 That was when he joined the army. 那是他参军的时候。 This was where I first met him. 这是我第一次见到他的地方。 That was how she finished her education. 那就是她怎样完成学业的。 This is why Tom cried. 这就是为什么汤姆哭的原因。
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